Theory-Based Message Design

Go over the reading material,ppt, and videos

1. post any questions that you have based on reading and ppt

2. Extra one day will be added for question2

After you watch the videos, answer the following questions, between 300- 500 words.

Are these effective campaign messages from an Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM) perspective?

If so, why? If not, why not? Is one more effective than the other and why?

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MESSAG
AGENDA
• THEORY-DRIVEN HEALTH COMMUNICATION MESSAGE DESIGN
• THE INTEGRATIVE MODEL OF BEHAVIORAL PREDICTION (TRA & TPB)
• HEALTH RISK MESSAGE DESIGN (BASED ON EPPM)
• READING COMMENTARIES (RC) 5, 6, 7
• BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS PAPER (PART 2, HEALTH COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN
PLAN
The PRECEDE – PROCEED Model
Source: Greene & Kreuter (2005)
Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction
• Builds on the Theory of
Reasoned Action (TRA)
and the Theory of
Planned Behavior (TPB)
Theory of Reasoned Action
Beliefs about
the behavior
Evaluation of
the behavior
Opinions of
referent others
Motivation
to comply
Attitudes toward
the behavior
(Attitudes may be
conflicting)
Subjective
norm(s)
(Not all will have the
same “weight” for
individual)
Behavioral
Intent
(Intention)
Behavior
Theory of Planned Behavior
Behavioral
beliefs
Attitude toward
the behavior
Normative
beliefs
Subjective
norm
Control
beliefs
Perceived
behavioral
control
Adapted from Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory
of planned behavior. Organizational
Behavior and Human Decision
Processes, 50, 179-211.
Behavioral
intent
(Intention)
Behavior
Actual
behavioral
control
Behavioral control: Individuals’ beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate or
inhibit performance of a behavior [=control beliefs] and the perceived power of these factors
Using the IMBP to Design Health Messages
STEPS
• Step 1: Define the behavior
• Step 2: Identify salient beliefs
• Step 3: Determine which of the salient beliefs your campaign should address
Beliefs
Attitudes
Campaign targets…
Behaviors
Using the IMBP to Design Health Messages
Analytical Strategy
1. Develop questions that get at individuals’ beliefs
2. Administer questionnaire to a sample representative of the target population
3. Analyze the data you collect (correlations, regression analysis)
4. Identify the most important determinants of the behavior you’re trying to shape/change
• If it’s attitudes, for example, then you need to work on shaping/changing behavioral or outcome beliefs
• Strengthen/Accentuate/Emphasize those beliefs that are most important, given your goals
5. Beware! Your findings may vary depending on the population/sub-population you’re studying
Using the IMBP to Design Health Messages
Different factors may shape different populations’ behaviors (Example)
Using the IMBP to Design Health Messages
Different
factors may
shape
different
populations’
behaviors, but
knowing what
specific
beliefs matter
is key, too!
(Example)
Designing Impactful Health Messages
Pay attention to the:
• Content of the message
• Format of the message
IMBP can inform content design, but
other theories might be more helpful in
determining the format
https://www.ispot.tv/ad/Ap1V/know-hpv-hpv-vaccination
Using EPPM to Design Health Messages
Source: Witte, K. (1992). Putting the fear back into the fear appeals: The extended
parallel process model. Communication Monographs, 59(4), 329—349.
Using EPPM to Design Health Messages
Key Considerations
1. Identify specific health threat
2. Message must strike a balance between severity (seriousness) of threat and personal
susceptibility
3. Message should also provide an actionable response that provides a strong sense of efficacy (i.e.,
provide doable and effective actions people can take to protect themselves from danger)
How much fear is enough?
Approaches
1. Work with existing levels of fear (how afraid are people of X?)
• Are all segments of the population you’re trying to influence the same in terms of how much they fear X?
2. Alternatively, attempt to invoke fear and efficacy in a single message
• Careful, though: Too much fear can lead down the path to fear control and not to danger control
Putting EPPM to work
Analytical strategy
1. Establish levels for each of the EPPM theoretical variables using the Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale
(RBD) or alternative questions that help you achieve the same thing
• Severity
• Susceptibility
• Self-efficacy
• Response efficacy
2. Compare the means of each theoretical variable to others
• Perceptions of self-efficacy and response efficacy need to be higher than perceptions of severity or
susceptibility.
• If they’re not, then campaign must work to increase the former.
• Otherwise, simple fear appeals may be sufficient
Putting EPPM to work (continued)
Analytical strategy
3. Create a chart of beliefs. Your goal is to get all of these beliefs in the STRONG/HIGH zone!
Theoretical
variables
Severity
Susceptibility
Self-Efficacy
Response Efficacy
Weak or Low
Belief Strength
Moderate Belief
Strength
Strong/High Belief
Strength
Putting EPPM to work (continued)
Analytical strategy
4. Determine what influences these four key theoretical variables
• Based on the literature, these determinants can include:
• Socio-demographics characteristics
• Life experiences
• Knowledge, awareness
• Cultural and religious beliefs
• Social norms, social networks
• Barriers to actions
• Patterns of interpersonal communication
• Mass media use
Putting EPPM to work (continued)
Analytical strategy
5. Create a chart of the beliefs to change, introduce, or reinforce
What you
want your
audience of
interest to
think/say as
a result of
your
campaign:
That is a problem, and I can
reduce the risk by doing what
they say; I think I can do that.
Examples
Are these effective campaign messages from an EPPM perspective? Why or why not?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56b09ZyLaWk

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