1.1. Counting jails and prisons, approximately how many citizens are incarcerated?  2.2. Which important scholar argued that criminals and their punishment are functional in society, help to define norms and expectations for conformity? 3.3. Political liberals and _______________ encouraged reform of the prison system during the Enlightenment Period. 4.4. Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles? 5.5. The Penitentiary Act was based upon four core principles where prisoners were confined in solitary cells and labored silently in common rooms. They include 6.6. How was the existing system of justice altered during the Enlightenment? 7.7. The __________ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates. 8.8. During the Progressive Reform Era, two main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and ______________. 9.9. The Military Commissions Act (MCA) __________ the ability of “unlawful enemy combatants” to file a writ of habeas corpus. 10.10. Which court decision held the basic elements of procedural due process must be present when decisions are made concerning the disciplining of an inmate? 11.11. Which case allowed inmates to sue state officials for brutality, inadequate medical care and nutrition, theft of personal property and the denial of basic rights: 12.12. In Boumediene v. Bush, the Court ruled the detainees at Guantanamo Bay are entitled to: 13.13. According to the Supreme Court, the term “totality of conditions” may be legally interpreted as: 14.14. The right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment is found in which Amendment? 15.15. Experts usually cite _________ as reasons wrongful convictions occur. 16.16. Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and ______________ in the community. 17.17. In the Booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are: 18.18. Restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following? 19.19. Which of the following is an argument for a centralized probation authority? 20.20. Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus? 21.21. Between 1200 and 1827, English law: 22.22. Recognizance was first used in court to recognize a formally recorded ___________to perform some act entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community. 23.23. Judges may use a range of ________________ sanctions from those exerting a low level of control to those exerting a high level of control. 24.24. The concept of community corrections is best understood as a goal. That goal clearly is to: 25.25. The new movement that seeks to establish correctional programs falling between standard probation and prison is called: 26.26. A major criticism of probation, as traditionally practiced, is that: 27.27. Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload is known as: 28.28. According to your text, jail suicides are primarily caused by: 29.29. By far the most successful pretrial release program is: 30.30. __________ is a drug that inhibits drinking. 31.31. America’s oldest prison was built in 1798. This prison was located in what city in New Jersey: 32.32. The prison design most often used for female and juvenile inmates is: 33.33. The __________ model was dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s. 34.34. At present, the focus of corrections has shifted to: 35.35. Most prisons employ a __________ model. 36.36. According to sociologists, the “big house” image of the American prison has: 37.37. A majority of all state prisoners throughout the country are housed in __________ prisons. 38.38. With the correctional focus shifting to crime control, some believe offenders have had it too soft, resulting in: 39.39. Responsibility of housing federal pretrial detainees belongs to: 40.40. Prisons designed to hold the “toughest of the tough” are called: 41.41. In prison, gangs are organized primarily to: 42.42. A set of rules of conduct that reflect the values and norms of the prison social system and help to define for inmates the characteristics associated with the model prisoner is known as the: 43.43. The adaptive role within prison where inmates see the period in prison as a temporary break in their criminal careers is known as: When an inmate views his/her incarceration as a temporary break in their criminal career, their adaptive role is known as: 44.44. Because inmates are not allowed to carry any currency, the primary method of exchange in prison is: 45.45. Correctional leaders have found the best way to weaken prison gangs is to: 46.46. Which of the following is not a purpose of gangs in prison? 47.47. Inmates who fall victim to sexual violence while incarcerated tend to be: 48.48. In prison terminology the “fish” is a(n): 49.49. A principal feature in prison society which reinforces the norms and roles of the social system and influences the nature of interpersonal relationships is known as: 50.50. In 2003 the Prison Rape Elimination Act was created in order to:  Ecological ServicesIn a 2-3 page paper, using APA-style formatting, define and discuss the concept of ecological services. Then, review the “Ecological Services of Rivers” outlined in Mini Lecture: Water Resources and Water Pollution. From the list, identify two services you believe are the most important and cite at least 3 reasons why. Also, choose two services that you think are most likely to decline due to human influence and cite at least 3 examples of the result of decline of those services.Grading Criteria AssignmentsMaximum PointsMeets or exceeds established assignment criteria0-50Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts0-20Clearly present well-reasoned ideas and concepts0-30Mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling that affects clarity, APA formatting.Up to -10Total100 [removed][removed][removed]

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