Grape Plant Research Paper

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*Please see the attachment. I will upload grading rubric and paper details. **Please use online credible sources such as articles and online books.

Paper Details

• 6 – 8 pages, double spaced, 12 point Arial or Times New Roman font.

•1” margins.

• Citations in APA style.

• Your paper must be an original work. Papers that you have written or are writing for another course are not allowed.

• You should use AT LEAST 8, and probably more, reliable references for your paper. In general, if it is only available on the web it is suspect. Only use such sources if this is the only source for the information (extremely unlikely), or if you are using the source to critique popular opinions or preconceptions. Use web references rarely, if at all.Wikipedia is not reliable. Corporate web sites are not reliable.

The goal of this assignment is for you to investigate, analyze and present the interactions between a plant or plant product and human civilizations. Your goal is NOT to be exhaustive – one could write a book about any of the plants below – but to identify an interesting and compelling thesis concerning your plant and civilizations, and then present this thesis in 6 – 8 double spaced pages.

In creating an interesting thesis, you first need to identify the interesting or controversial aspects of you plant and its interaction with humans. Aspects to consider in selecting your specific topic and creating your thesis:

Biology / Natural history:

How does your plant grow? Where did it originate? Does it interact with animals as food or with pollinators? Has it been domesticated? Where? By whom? Where does it grow now? Is it cultivated and / or has it been domesticated? If so, how are wild varieties different from cultivated varieties? How are they different? Why are they different?

Social / Cultural:

How is the plant used by humans? Is there any specific cultural or religious significance of the plant? Currently? Historically? Are there different uses for different cultures? Are there different uses within a culture or society? Why is your plant important to humans? Is your plant used in art? Is this significant?

Economic:

What are the economic factors that are important in its production, sale or use? Are these consistent across cultures? Through time? Is the plant important in international trade?

Historical:

How has the use of your plant changed through time? How has the production / cultivation of your plant changed through time? Has the importance of your plant (economically, culturally) changed through time? Why? How?

Human health:

How does your plant impact human health? Is it an important component of human diet? What are its nutritional aspects (if it is used for food)? Medicinal attributes? Psychoactive properties? Is it poisonous?

Policy / legal:

Is your plant legal to grow and consume? Where is it produced legally? Where is its use prohibited? Why is it prohibited? Are there policies in place to increase its production? Where? Why?

Not all plants have interesting stories in ALL categories. However, each of the plant species in the list below is interesting in several of the categories above. Your research paper should describe and analyze your plant from at least 2 (probably no more than 4) different perspectives and link these perspectives into a cohesive, interesting narrative. Your paper must have an identifiable thesis. Your thesis will take a stand on a single point, and will let the reader know that this is what you paper is about.

For example,

“Chili peppers (Capsicum annuum) were domesticated at least 7,000 years ago in central America. The fruits of this plant contain capsaicin, chemicals that activate heat-sensitive nerve cells and produce the sensation of heat and pain. Soon after Europeans came into contact with the cultures that used this plant as food, chilies were transported back to Europe and from there were incorporated into the cuisines of many different cultures across the globe. The rapid dispersal and current world-wide distribution of this species is the result of an innately human desire for novel and even painful sensory experiences

Good. Single point, can be argued one way or another, potentially interesting given the data available.

“Chili peppers (Capsicum annuum) were domesticated at least 7,000 years ago in central America. The fruits of this plant contain capsaicin, chemicals that activate heat-sensitive nerve cells and produce the sensation of heat and pain. Soon after Europeans came into contact with the cultures that used this plant as food, chilies were transported back to Europe and from there were incorporated into the cuisines of a many different cultures across the globe.

Some cultures have adopted this plant as a vegetable and have selected for varieties that do not produce capsaicin. Other cultures use this plant as a spice, and have selected for varieties with high capsaicin content.”

Poor. This doesn’t say why some use the chili in one way and others a different way. No analysis or synthesis. “On the one hand…. On the other hand…” Why did some cultures value chilies for pungency, and others not? What is this paper going to say that we don’t already know?

“Chili peppers (Capsicum annuum) were domesticated at least 7,000 years ago in central America. The fruits of this plant contain capsaicin, chemicals that activate heat-sensitive nerve cells and produce the sensation of heat and pain. Soon after Europeans came into contact with the cultures that used this plant as food, chilies were transported back to Europe and from there were incorporated into the cuisines of a many different cultures across the globe. Following its introduction to Europe, chilies were selected for low capsaicin production and the chili pepper was adopted as a vegetable in northern European cuisine. In most other parts of the world, the chili retained its heat and was adopted as a spice. The chili was adopted as a spice by cultures that already used pungent spices as a part of their cuisine, but was transformed into a non-pungent vegetable by cultures without such traditions.”

Marginal. This is weak because most of us already know and accept the thesis statement as true. A better approach would be to explore why some cultures value pungency and others do not, and then take a stand on this. Is it because of cultural norms? Hot climates? Human health issues? The role of food and meals in each society?

Please note that before you create your thesis, you will need to do quite a bit of research on your plant. Before selecting your plant from the list below it is a good idea to explore what is known about the plant and make sure that it is interesting to you. We will be working with the Morgan Library in recitation September 18th and 19th and you will learn about the research databases that we have at CSU. We will give you a short assignment that revolves around your plant – we will ask you to identify the most interesting or controversial attributes of your plant from the different aspects discussed above. You will then provide us the key references you have identified for that topic and provide a 1 or 2 sentence summary of each. At the end of this exercise you should have generated 3 – 4 essential sources for each of the main categories above and should then have all the information you need to generate an interesting and compelling thesis.

How to come up with a thesis

· Strong, argumentative statement that can be backed up with facts

· Good example (specific, can be supported):

“Banana (Musa acuminata) was a commodity responsible for the creation of corrupt governments and extreme wealth for a handful of people in the early 1900s.”

· Bad example (can be supported, but not specific):

“Banana (Musa acuminata) was heavily traded in the early 1900s.”

http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/thesis_statement.shtml

Title: (Make the focus of your paper clear)

e.g: Title. A desire for pain? The rapid spread and adoption of the chili in world cuisine.

Thesis statement: The thesis is essentially a succinct and direct explanation of your conclusions. A successful thesis will answer your research question by explaining both focal aspects of your chosen plant independently and then assessing the interaction between them.

e.g: Thesis statement: The rapid dispersal and current world-wide distribution of the chili pepper is the result of an innately human desire for painful, but safe, sensory experiences.

Background section: This explains why your topic is interesting to a general audience and how it is relevant to your thesis.

e.g: Background: The biological need for carbohydrates and proteins most likely drove the domestication and development of staple crops such as legumes and cereal grains (Kislev and Bar-Yosef 1988); however, the motivation behind the production of crops which do not provide necessary nutrients in not well understood (but see Sherman and Billing 1999). Since spices do not satisfy biological need, their current worldwide usage may be a result of cultural desires.

Paper Details

• 6 – 8 pages, double spaced, 12 point Arial or Times New Roman font.

•1” margins.

• Citations in APA style.

• Your paper must be an original work. Papers that you have written or are writing for another course are not allowed.

• You should use 12 reliable references for your paper. In general, if it is only available on the web it is suspect. Only use such sources if this is the only source for the information (extremely unlikely), or if you are using the source to critique popular opinions or preconceptions. Use web references rarely, if at all.Wikipedia is not reliable. Corporate web sites are not reliable.

Introduction

Thesis statement: The thesis is essentially a succinct and direct explanation of your conclusions. A successful thesis will answer your research question by explaining both focal aspects of your chosen plant independently and then assessing the interaction between them.

e.g: Thesis statement: The rapid dispersal and current world-wide distribution of the chili pepper is the result of an innately human desire for painful, but safe, sensory experiences.

How to come up with a thesis

· Strong, argumentative statement that can be backed up with facts

· Good example (specific, can be supported):

“Banana (Musa acuminata) was a commodity responsible for the creation of corrupt governments and extreme wealth for a handful of people in the early 1900s.”

· Bad example (can be supported, but not specific):

“Banana (Musa acuminata) was heavily traded in the early 1900s.”

http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/thesis_statement.shtml

Background section: This explains why your topic is interesting to a general audience and how it is relevant to your thesis.

e.g: Background: The biological need for carbohydrates and proteins most likely drove the domestication and development of staple crops such as legumes and cereal grains (Kislev and Bar-Yosef 1988); however, the motivation behind the production of crops which do not provide necessary nutrients in not well understood (but see Sherman and Billing 1999). Since spices do not satisfy biological need, their current worldwide usage may be a result of cultural desires.

Grading Rubric for Papers

The Superior Paper (A/A-)

Thesis: Easily identifiable, plausible, sophisticated, focused, insightful, clearly connected to a point of significance. Interesting.

Structure: Evident, understandable, appropriate for thesis. Excellent transitions from point to point. Paragraphs support solid topic sentences.

Use of evidence/development: Appropriate and reliable sources used to support every point with at least one example. Multiple sources are used for major points. If used, excellent integration of quoted material into sentences.

Analysis / Synthesis: Author clearly relates / discusses evidence to thesis; analysis is solid, posing new ways to think of the material. Excellent use of secondary sources.

Logic and Argumentation All ideas in the paper flow logically; the analysis / synthesis is relevant and identifiable, reasonable, and sound. Counterpoints are acknowledged and where possible refuted.

Mechanics: Sentence structure, grammar, and diction excellent; correct use of punctuation and citation style; minimal to no spelling errors; absolutely no run-on sentences or awkward constructions; limited or no use of the passive voice.

The Good Paper (B+/B/B-)

Thesis: Promising, but may be slightly unclear, or lacking in insight or clear connection to a point of significance.

Structure: Generally clear and appropriate, though may wander occasionally. May have a few unclear transitions or a few paragraphs without strong topic sentences.

Use of evidence/development: Examples used to support most points. Some evidence / sources do not support points, or may appear where inappropriate. Reliability of sources either not evident or not discussed. Quotations well integrated into sentences.

Analysis: Evidence related to thesis, though links perhaps not as clear as best. Above average use of outside sources.

Argumentation: Arguments in paper are clear, usually flow logically and make sense. Some evidence that counter-arguments are acknowledged, though perhaps not addressed.

Mechanics: Sentence structure, grammar, and diction strong despite occasional lapses; punctuation and citation style generally used correctly. Some (minor) spelling errors; may have a few run-on sentences, sentence fragments, or other awkward constructions; a couple of sentences in the passive voice.

The Average/Marginal Paper (C+/C/C-) – Not all qualities necessarily present –

Thesis: May be somewhat vague or offer somewhat less clarity in terms of a point of significance or provide little around which to structure the paper. Not interesting.

Structure: Generally clear but may sometimes wanders or jump around. Weak transitions, some paragraphs without topic sentences.

Use of evidence/development: Quantity and reliability of sources poor. Points may often lack supporting evidence, or evidence may be used where inappropriate. Explanation for the connection between evidence and overall point not clear. Quotes poorly integrated into sentences.

Analysis: Quotes appear often without analysis relating them to thesis or analysis offers nothing beyond the quote. Sources not analyzed or integrated, presenting a single point of view or opinion.

Logic and Argumentation: Logic fails, or argument is unclear. Does not address counter-arguments and may contain logical contradictions.

Mechanics: A notable pattern of error in sentence structure, grammar, or diction (though usually not major). Errors in punctuation, citation style, and spelling may occur. May have several run-on sentences or fragments; more than a couple of sentences are in the passive voice.

The Well-Below Average Paper (D+/D/D-) – Not all qualities necessarily present –

Thesis: Difficult to identify, may be bland restatement of obvious point.

Structure: Unclear, often because thesis is weak or non-existent. Transitions confusing and unclear. Few topic sentences.

Use of evidence/development: Very few or very weak examples. General failure to support statements, or evidence seems to support no statement. Quotes not integrated into sentences; “plopped in” improperly.

Analysis: Very little or very weak attempt to related evidence to argument; may be no identifiable argument, or no evidence to relate it to. A clearly inferior use of outside sources.

Logic and Argumentation: Ideas do not flow at all, usually because there is no argument to support. Simplistic view of topic; no effort to grasp possible alternative views. Many logical contradictions, or simply too incoherent to determine.

Mechanics: Significant problems in sentence structure, grammar, and diction. Frequent major errors in citation style, punctuation, and spelling. May have many run-on sentences and comma splices; abundant use of the passive voice.

The Failing Paper (F) -minimal lack of effort or comprehension of the assignment-

Thesis: No thesis statement or very broad, muddy statement

Structure: Lack of structure, topics jump around.

Use of evidence/development: No connection between evidence (if evidence is present) and thesis.

Analysis: No argument.

Logic and Argumentation: No flow, no effort to relate topics together and make comparisons/contrast.

Mechanics: Very difficult to understand owing to major problems with mechanics, structure, and analysis. Has no identifiable thesis or the thesis is utterly inadequate and non-argumentative. Outside sources inadequately integrated.

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