Communications Question

Part II – Short AnswerFA 2022
Instructor: Lindsay Wood
Value: 15% of final grade
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
• You may not refer to any materials that are outside of our CMNS 1140 Moodle course.
• You may not interact with, share answers, or seek advice from peers, tutors, family
members, friends, websites that post answers, etc.
• You may not copy any of this content or your responses into a tool to help you
develop your responses.
• Write all answers in a clear, concise style using a professional tone.
• There is an Academic Honesty disclaimer at the end of this document. Ensure you sign
off on the disclaimer before submitting your file. Students who submit work that is
not their own (and that is not cited) will receive a grade of zero for this portion of
the midterm. If students submit the same response, all parties will receive a zero
for that question.
• Please upload your completed file to Moodle saved as First_LastName_PartB
Try not to think of this as a test – simply try to apply your learning as if you were being asked
to respond to these questions as part of your own job.
Breathe.
Relax.
You’ll be fine.
*** QUESTIONS? If you have any questions related to this midterm then please post them in
the Midterm Q&A Forum. It’s guaranteed that other people will have the same question.
indsay will not respond to questions sent via email**.
1. Audience Analysis ( /3 points)
Knowing what your audience wants and needs can be a relatively complex approach –
whether you realize it or not. In Module 2 we learned about the REALISTIC approach to identify key
audience considerations.




Read the email below Elon Musk sent to employees at Tesla informing them of return to work
expectations. Since you are closer to the employees at Tesla, Elon has asked for feedback on
his communication.
Using the REALISTIC approach, comment on how effective you think the CEO’s communication
is in regards to assessing key audience considerations.
Is there anything the CEO should do to strengthen their message?
Point form responses are fine using the acronym
CMNS 1140 midterm – Oct 26-27 pg. 1
Email to analyze
Subject: Remote work is no longer acceptable
Everyone at Tesla is required to spend a minimum of 40 hours in the office per week or depart Tesla. This is less than we ask of
factory workers. Moreover, the office must be where your actual colleagues are located, not some remote pseudo office. If you
don’t show up, we will assume you have resigned. Upon reading this memo, consider this new policy to be in effect.
The more senior you are, the more visible must be your presence. That is why I lived in the factory so much – so that those on
the line could see me working alongside them. If I had not done that, Tesla would long ago have gone bankrupt.
There are of course companies that don’t require this, but when was the last time they shipped a great new product? It’s been a
while. Tesla has and will create and actually manufacture the most exciting and meaningful products of any company on Earth.
This will not happen by phoning it in.
If there are particularly exceptional contributors for whom this is impossible, I will review and approve those exceptions directly.
Thanks,
Elon
Example inspired by:
Source: https://electrek.co/2022/06/01/elon-musk-tesla-employees-come-back-office-or-quit/
CMNS 1140 midterm – Oct 26-27 pg. 2
Please use this space for your response to Question #1 (Audience Analysis):
CMNS 1140 midterm – Oct 26-27 pg. 3
2. Identifying Strong Sources ( /3 points)
One of the biggest challenges we face today is the mass amount of information that is available to us.
It’s overwhelming at times, and can be even more difficult to determine whether sources of information
can be trusted.
In Module 4 we learned about a process/test that can be used to assess if a source is reliable and
trustworthy.



Please identify one source of information (websites, online articles, etc.) related to the
topic “Gender Equality in the Workplace”.
Next, apply the test you learned about in Module 4 to this source to determine if the source is
fake news or reliable.
Please ensure each step of the test that you perform is very clearly defined for the source you
are assessing. Hint: use the acronym and address each step. Point form responses are
encouraged.
Please note the url or full
reference for the source you
chose (.5 pt)
Source#1 results of your
‘test/assessment’ (2 pts)
Source #1: Is this reliable or
not? (.5 pt)
CMNS 1140 midterm – Oct 26-27 pg. 4
3. Working with Sources ( /2 points)
Paraphrasing and citing sources are critical elements in being a strong and confident communicator.
By incorporating sources and other people’s viewpoints into your writing you can develop more
convincing arguments.
I want you to showcase your paraphrasing and citation skills using one example. You may wish to
watch this video first on how to do a proper paraphrase: https://youtu.be/7syE6AMRA7k
Please write one to two complete sentences as a paraphrase from this passage. You can choose to
paraphrase one sentence, or one or more core ideas. Also, include the proper in-text citation where
appropriate.
Title of Article: Challenges in academic writing for students
Source: Communications for good
Date: Feb 21, 2021
Author: Linda Jones
Page number: 199
Students often have difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first-time citing sources. This
difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask
their teacher for help. Universities need to provide more resources to help students understand how to
use proper APA style citation.
Please write your paraphrase including proper in-text citation here:
CMNS 1140 midterm – Oct 26-27 pg. 5
4. Persuasive Communication ( 2.5 points)
Communicating persuasively is an important skill when trying to convince others of our opinion or
perspective.
Using the AIDA approach that was covered in one of our lessons, I want you to persuade me to try
out a new restaurant or a new type of food.


Please clearly define each step of the AIDA approach in your response
Your response should be a maximum of 1-2 paragraphs or you can use the AIDA acronym and
write a sentence or 2 for each letter.
If you incorporate any external sources/information, please use proper quotes/paraphrases and in-text
citations. There is no need to provide a formal APA reference listing. For example, if it’s a website, just
list the url at the end of your paragraph.
I look forward to seeing what you recommend!
Enter your response here:
CMNS 1140 midterm – Oct 26-27 pg. 6
5. Persuasion ( /1.5 points)

Explain how this email advertisement I received from the company
Ruggable reflects (or fails to reflect) the 3 core elements of
persuasive communication (ethos, logos and pathos) that we
learned about in Module 6. Make sure that you have clearly defined
each element in your response.
Please respond here:
CMNS 1140 midterm – Oct 26-27 pg. 7
6. Effective Emails & Editing ( /2 points)
Email is one of the most used communication tools in the business environment. Therefore, knowing
how to properly compose and format a professional email is important.
Your friend knows you are taking CMNS 1140 this semester and learning how to write a professional
email. They have asked your advice on how to email their Employer requesting a raise. Please re-write
the email below keeping in mind the tips you have learned in this course on how to compose a
professional request email and include the following for full marks: effective subject line, at least one
list, appropriate business language/tone/parallel structure, and salutations.
Hey boss,
I have been workin extra hard this past 3 months and think that i deserve a raise. Some of my
accomplishments recently include opening and closing the store by myself, trained 5 new employees,
reducing customer wait times, and increases of traffic on our website by 50%. I really need this raise so
I can buy a new car to get to work. I would be soooooo thankful if you granted my wish. It would make
my day which has been a particularly crappy one so far. Thank you for considering this request and I
hope to hear back from you in 24 hours. I can meet you in person if you have questions about why I
deserve this raise.
Thx boss. You are the best. Lindsay.
Please write your edited version here:
CMNS 1140 midterm – Oct 26-27 pg. 8
7. Delivering bad news (1pt):
In Module 6, one of our readings shared seven goals to keep in mind when delivering negative news,
in person or in written form. Let’s assume you are working in a group for one of your class projects and
one member of your group is not participating. Briefly share which of the 7 goals you would apply
when delivering the news that they are being removed from the group and why (aim for a paragraph in
length).
CMNS 1140 midterm – Oct 26-27 pg. 9
Unless otherwise referenced, content within this
presentation is informed by the following
textbooks:
Unless otherwise referenced, all images that appear in this
presentation are from www.pixabay.com and are free from
copyright or attribution requirements.
Cruthers, A. (2019). Business Communication For
Everyone. BC Campus:

Cover


Meyer, C. (2017). Communicating for Results.
Fourth Edition. Don Mills: Oxford University Press
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CMNS 1140 –
Intro to Professional
Communication
Module 2
2
Noise
context
Sender
(source)
context
Channel
(medium)
Receiver
(recipient)
Feedback
Slide: The Communication Model Process
In last week’s class we discussed the communication model process.
This model helps us understand how we get ideas from our minds, and communicate
those to the audience (or the receiver). In order to do that, we need to generally
collect our thoughts and write them down.
3
The basis of all communication comes from ideas – ideas that we have and wish to
communicate. In some cases those ideas are our own, and in other cases they’re
ideas that others wish for us to communicate.
4
Slide: Asking opinions
For example – in a workplace setting, your supervisor may ask you for your opinion
on a given subject –perhaps they want to know what you think about the idea of
introducing a new social media tool to promote your organization online. That’s an
example of them soliciting your own idea, where you generally have a fair amount of
input or opinion.
5
Slide: Asking opinions 2
In contrast, perhaps instead your supervisor approaches you and says they have
made a decision that they wish to create an Instagram account to promote the
organization online and you need to communicate that to the rest of the employees
through an internal newsletter. That’s an example of needing to communicate
someone else’s idea – there’s little input or opinion that’s being asked of you.
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Slide: Communicating Ideas 2
Regardless, how we go about communicating our idea will require some planning.
And generally, the more time we spend planning, the more effective our
communication will be.
And to be clear, planning is important regardless of the format that your
communication will result in – whether it be needing to write a proposal, to giving a
presentation, to even just participating in a meeting. Organizing your thoughts and
crafting your approach will be critical to coming across in an effective manner.
7
Identify the three main
steps in the writing
process
Slide: Steps in the writing process (Outcome)
In general, there’s a relatively simple – yet involved – three step process when it
comes to formulating your thoughts, getting your ideas on paper, and then finalizing
your writing for distribution.
While I’m presenting it to you in a specific order to make it clearer, often the process
is iterative or you end up revisiting components along the way.
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Pre‐writing (Planning)
Writing
Revising/Editing/
Proof reading
Slide: Steps in the writing process
Pre‐writing
Writing
Revising/Editing/Proof reading
We’re going to begin by looking at the pre‐writing phase.
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The ultimate plan
(pre‐writing)
Slide: The ultimate plan (Pre‐writing)
Pre‐writing, I feel, is the most important and critical part of the writing process.
Without even basic attention to this part of the process, your communication is likely
going to fail.
QUESTION: Have you ever struggled to get an assignment started? You likely had
the ideas, but couldn’t’ figure out how to get them on paper?
In order to get started, one of the best things to do is to understand what we’re
working towards!
I’m going to provide an overview of framework that we typically use when planning
our professional communications – it’s called the SMART approach.
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Outcome:
Plan messages using the
SMART approach
Slide: Outcome > SMART Approach
Identify how to effective plan by pre‐writing with the SMART approach
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S
M
A
R
T
Slide: S – M – A – R – T
What I’d like you to do on a scrap piece of paper or on your computer is to write
these letters vertically: S M A R T – each letter stands for one of five key factors that
we need to consider when planning our communication. Take 1 minute now to jot
down what you think each letter stands for.
Now don’t touch it. We’ll come back to this later.
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Situation
Message
Audience
Response
Tool(s)
Slide: The SMART approach
Here’s what we mean by the SMART approach – they’re five core factors that we
need to consider when planning our communication – and we’ll discuss each in detail
in the next section:
Situation
Message
Audience
Response
Tool (channel)
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Assess the Situation
Message
Audience
Response
Tool(s)
Slide: The situation
Objective:
Determine how to define the situation through the purpose and scope of a message
(SMART)
The S in SMART stands for the situation.
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The situation
• The purpose of our
communication
• The scope of our
communication
Slide: The situation
When assessing the situation, there are generally two core components we want to
identify:
The purpose of our communication
The scope of our communication
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Situation > Purpose
Slide: Purpose
By purpose, we mean the intention you have, or what your ultimate goal or end
result is for sending your message.
In some cases, the purpose will be provided to you by the person who assigns it to
you; in other cases you will be the one determining what your own purpose is for
issuing the communication.
Notably, we want to ask: why are you communicating this information?
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What is my purpose?
Apologizing
Explaining
Proposing
Authorization (payment)
Following up
Recommending
Claiming a problem
Forecasting
Reviewing
Conveying goodwill
Gaining approval
Requesting
Defining
Informing
Summarizing
Describing
Inquiring
Evaluating
Presenting
Slide: What is my purpose?
Apologizing
Authorization (payment)
Claiming a problem
Conveying goodwill
Describing
Evaluating
Explaining
Gaining approval
Informing
Inquiring
Presenting
Proposing
Recommending
Reviewing
Requesting
Summarizing
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“Thank you so much
for your gift”
“Your $50.00
contribution… is
greatly appreciated”
“Once again, thank
you for your support.”
Slide: Example: BC Cancer Foundation
For each of the following examples, what do you feel is the primary purpose?
Thank you letter, gratitude
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“we have received
your order”
“You will be notified
by email when your
order is ready”
Order details…
Slide: Example: London Drugs Photolab
Confirmation, Instructions
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Slide: Example: Edible Arrangements 50% off
Persuasion, to make a sale
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Situation > Scope
Length of time
Sections
Layout/Design
Level of
complexity
Medium/Channel
Legal/Privacy
Slide: Situation > Scope
The scope of your communication basically refers to limitations or constraints that
you have placed upon you.
Your assignments for this class are a great example. I’ve instituted page limits,
specified the font size and type, limited you to include certain sections or
components within your assignments, and even provided a time limit on your final
presentations.
Length/time
Layout/design
Sections
Medium/Channel
Level of detail/complexity
Legal/privacy
For example, if your audience is expecting a relatively quick summary or proposal on
a given topic or subject, you’re likely going to be limiting the scope of your
communication to be more high‐level. You will likely do a bit less research, and the
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form of your research may be less involved as well – such as based on general
conversations with your colleagues or customers, reading general reports others have
produced, searching for best practices or industry standards, or even just reviewing
company documents.
Whereas, if you’re going to be required to do a more in‐depth communication piece –
such as writing a lengthy and detailed report, you will likely want to investigate a
greater body of research and more in‐depth sources such as trade publications,
economic research, general trends, etc.
So, we’ve just learned about how to define the situation through the purpose and
scope of a message (SMART)
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Assess the Situation
Message
Audience
Response
Tool(s)
Objective:
Focus on a single message (SMART)
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Assess the Situation
Decide on the main Message
Audience
Response
Tool(s)
Slide: Decide on the message
The second letter in SMART is M – for Message. In order to communicate effectively,
we want to try to limit the number of messages that we’re aiming to get across.
Sometimes this can be a bit overwhelming, especially if we feel as though there is a
lot to communicate.
A great way to identify your core message is to ask yourself what is the ultimate
action you want your audience to take, OR what is the one thing you hope they
understand or remember and focus on highlighting this in your communication.
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Slide: Example: Home Depot COVID‐19 Reduced Hours
Here’s an example of an email I received a couple of weeks ago from the Home Depot
– a general home and garden supply store where we shop.
You’ll notice that the focus of this communication is on their adjusted store hours as a
result of the COVID‐19 pandemic. They’ve essentially elected to close about three
hours earlier than they usually do.
The rest of the message goes on to describe why they’re adjusting their hours –
which is largely to fully sanitize their stores and to restock appropriately and pull
together online and curbside orders.
The rest of the message does contain additional information about other changes
they’re implementing to enhance sanitation and safety for both employees and
customers, however it’s not the most important message they want to convey.
They know that likely the most important piece of information for their customers is
going to be the hours that customers can access their services, so this is the main
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message that’s been highlighted in both the email subject line, the header at the top
of the message, and you’ll notice is the first they that is mentioned and highlighted
uses bold font.
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Source: https://colemaninsights.com/coleman‐insights‐blog/too‐many‐messages
Slide: Example: Radio Station T‐Shirt
When I was searching online for examples of too many messages trying to be
communicated I stumbled upon this imagine, which I felt is actually a good fit for
what I’m trying to describe here.
Now, while it’s on a t‐shirt, it’s still a form of communication. You’ll see that there are
actually three different messages on this person’s t‐shirt.
That Magic 101.7 plays “continuous light rock”
That it features John Carter’s morning show, and
That it offers the no‐repeat workday (which means they don’t repeat any of the same
songs between 9am and 5pm).
The main issue here is that this person likely walked by hundreds of people on a given
day and anyone who saw the shirt would likely remember only one of the key
messages that is on the shirt, or would remember aspects of each one and none of
them correctly. They’re not clearly communicating one key message.
I’ve included a link to the full article on our Moodle site if you’d like to read more
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about this.
https://colemaninsights.com/coleman‐insights‐blog/too‐many‐messages
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Source: https://colemaninsights.com/coleman‐insights‐blog/too‐many‐messages
Slide: The likelihood of communicating more than one message
This graphic, taken from the same article that I just described, is a great indicator of
how providing our audience with more than one message can actually result in them
retaining less information or remembering information incorrectly. While this
particular image is focused on advertising – especially radio – the concept still applies
to other forms of communication that we engage in on a daily basis.
So, we’ve just reviewed that it’s important to focus on a single message to provide
clarity to your audience.
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Assess the Situation
Decide on the main Message
Audience
Response
Tool(s)
27
Assess the Situation
Decide on the main Message
Conduct an Audience analysis
Response
Tool(s)
The A in SMART is for Audience.
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Noise
context
Sender
(source)
context
Channel
(medium)
Receiver
(recipient)
Feedback
Slide: The Communication Process
If we go back to our model that we introduced last week, the audience is the Receiver
(or the recipient).
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Key audience
considerations
Keep your analysis:
REALISTIC
Slide: Key audience considerations
Knowing what your audience wants and needs can be a relatively complex approach –
whether you realize it or not. In the marketing field, companies pay significant dollars
to hire professionals who can provide in‐depth audience analysis. I’m going to give
you an acronym now to help remember that we need to be REALISTIC when thinking
about our audience.
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Key audience
considerations
Keep your analysis:
Relationship
Expectation(s) / reactions
Attitudes / beliefs
Language
Interest in your message
Sensitivity
Timing
Intelligence
Context
Slide: Key audience considerations (REVEALED)
KEEP IT REALISTIC
Relationship (to you – position)
Expectation(s) / reactions (are they anticipating your message, or will it be a surprise?
Pro/con?)
Attitudes and beliefs (demographics, cultural backgrounds)
Language (style and tone) (vernacular)
Interest in your message (will it directly or indirect impact them? Do they NEED this
info?)
Sensitivity (are they going to be open to hearing the message?)
Timing (are they ready to hear this)
Intelligence (background knowledge and experience in the area)
Context (environmental, situational factors, political considerations)
So, in conclusion, when considering our audience, we want to take a REALISTIC
approach to consider all of the potential factors that will impact our writing.
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Assess the Situation
Decide on the main Message
Conduct an Audience analysis
Response
Tool(s)
Slide: Response
Moving on to the R…
Once we have an idea of who we are going to be communicating with, it’s important
to identify what type of response we’re hoping to generate from our communication
to them.
First of all – do you even want a response? In some cases you may just want to
provide information. In other cases, you will have a specific goal or purpose in mind
in terms of the response you’re looking for – it could be a simple as setting up a
mutually agreed upon date, time and location for a meeting, to getting approval to
get a raise from your boss, or to have someone let you know that they want to hire
your company to clean their home.
What type of response are these different examples seeking‐ if any?
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Assess the Situation
Decide on the main Message
Conduct an Audience analysis
Define the intended Response
Tool(s)
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Retrieved from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british‐columbia/timbits‐feed‐bear‐fine‐crime‐bc‐1.5262221
Slide: CBC article > Timbits and Bears
Notification> warning/education
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Retrieved from change.org
Slide: End Food waste in Canada
Change.org example: sign petition
35
Trump calls former aide Omarosa a ‘Dog’. (2018, August 14). Retrieved from https://baltimore.cbslocal.com/2018/08/14/trump‐calls‐former‐aide‐omarosa‐a‐dog/
Slide: Donald Trump tweet
Generate awareness/buzz
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Assess the Situation
Decide on the main Message
Conduct an Audience analysis
Define the intended Response
Tool(s)
The main point is ensure you’re clear in your communication around what your own
expectation is around the response you’re looking for, and then design your
communication to meet that need.
37
Assess the Situation
Decide on the main Message
Conduct an Audience analysis
Define the intended Response
Choose the appropriate Tool(s)
Slide: Tools
Once you have an idea of the situation, the message, the audience, and the response
you’re wanting, the final component is figuring out what tool – or channel you will
use to communicate your message – which will inform how your message is
designed.
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Noise
context
Sender
(source)
context
Channel
(medium)
Receiver
(recipient)
Feedback
Slide: The Communication Process Model
On our model, this is the tool or channel.
Different channels or mediums are better for certain types of communication than
others.
Remember, by a channel (or tool), we’re referring to what we use to send or
communicate our message. In this case, I’m using a video that incorporates audio and
visual cues.
There are many factors we need to consider to help us figure out what tool will be
best to communicate our message.
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Consider message requirements
 Accuracy
 Control
 Speed
 Cost
 Permanent record
 Level of detail
 Importance
 Privacy
 Channel constraints.
Slide: Consider message requirements
Message requirements:
+ Accuracy (written approach)
+ Control (private mechanism)
+ Speed (email)
+ Cost (online/f2f)
+ Permanent record (written record)
+ Level of detail (written report vs. phone call)
+ Importance (f2f meeting)
+ Privacy
+ Channel capacity/constraints
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Be SMART
• Assess the situation
• Decide on the main message
• Conduct an audience analysis
• Define the intended response
• Choose the appropriate tool/channel(s)
Slide: Prewriting – be SMART
So, by conducting a SMART analysis, you should have a very good idea of how you
wish to proceed with designing your communication.
Define the situation
Decide on the main message
Identify the audience
Define the response that we want
Choose our tool/medium/channel(s)
POST‐IT NOTE: I’d like you now to refer back to the paper or writing you did at the
beginning where you wrote down what you felt SMART stood for ‐ see how close or
far you were in your initial guess!
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Pre‐writing (Planning)
Writing
Revising/Editing/
Proof reading
As a reminder, here are the three main steps in the writing process:
Slide: Steps in the Writing Process
Pre‐writing (Planning)
Writing
Revising/Editing/Proof reading
Believe it or not, we’ve just spent the entire class so far on the main pre‐writing
components to help us figure out how we will begin to approach our communication.
Once we’ve figured out those elements, we can then move on to the next step,
Writing.
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Image source: http://phdcomics.com/comics/archive.php?comicid=1732
Slide: Writing comic
QUESTION: I suspect some of you may feel like this when it comes time to write
something, like an assignment.
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Writing:
Putting ideas to (e)paper
Putting ideas to (e)‐paper
Now that we’ve figured out what we need to write through the SMART process,
sometimes the hardest part is just getting started with the first word on the page.
You need to start somewhere, and generally, the first version of the message that you
write is not going to be the final version. It tends to be an iterative process and one
that generally allows for improvements and enhancements throughout the process.
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General writing tips
• Start with the easy section
• Don’t aim for perfection!
• Work on a computer
• Start early
• Micro‐breaks
Slide: General Writing tips
Some tips that I have from experience include:
When you’re ready to put your pen to paper, or your keys to the keyboard… I like to
draft by starting to write the section that I feel the most confident about – it may be a
key concept or an argument that I feel particularly strong about. I find the hardest
part is just getting started!
Don’t aim for perfection! If you try to get it perfect the first time you will never finish.
Try to write the first time by just getting ideas down; don’t worry about spelling or
grammar – just get your thoughts down.
Working on a computer makes it easier as you can save different versions, move text
around, and delete/undo as you go!Tip to turn the screen brightness down (or off!)
Create a timeline and start early so you have time to make adjustments.
Breaks are okay – but shut off your email and put your phone away… (micro‐
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distractions are not healthy! Reduce productivity by at least 10 minutes).
Check out the Pomodoro Technique: VIDEO:

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What is your
career goal,
and why?
What inspired
you to be
interested in
this career?
Slide: Quick write
What I’d like you to go to the discussion forum titled: My Career Goal and to take
about five minutes to write down for me what your career goal is right now, and
why – including what may have inspired you to be interested in that career. I want
you to write it in a professional manner, as if you need to explain it to a supervisor
or boss. And I want you to aim for a minimum eight lines of text. This is NOT a test!
I also want you do this without any real planning. Just write what comes to mind.
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How
challenging
was that?
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Revising/editing/proof‐reading
Slide: Revising/Editing/Proof‐reading
So when we make it to the final editing stage then we need to do an initial
celebration; you’ve at least started and got something to work with! That’s the
hardest part. Now what we want to do is to apply general techniques to edit our
writing.
This is one of the most important aspects of your communication. Have any of you
ever sent off an email or a text to someone and received a very confusing or opposite
response to what you had originally intended? Often it can be because you mis‐typed
a word without realizing it, or sometimes there’s this really handy ‐ or annoying –
thing called auto‐correct that can also create some really embarrassing situations. . .
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https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/14‐worst‐typos‐ever
20 of the worst typos, grammatical errors & spelling mistakes
we’ve ever seen. Retrieved from
https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/14‐worst‐typos‐ever
Slide: Amphibuous pitcher makes debut
49
PMO typo draws chuckles, cringes (2009, August 18). Retrieved from
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/pmo‐typo‐draws‐chuckles‐
cringes/article1201369/
Slide: PMO typo draws chuckles/cringes
A bumble by the Prime Minister’s Office has residents of Nunavut alternately
chuckling and cringing.
A news release sent out Monday outlined Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s itinerary as
he began a five‐day Arctic tour.
The release repeatedly spelled the capital of Nunavut as Iqualuit ‐ rather than Iqaluit,
which means “many fish” in the Inuktitut language.
The extra “u” makes a big difference.
50
YOUR EDITING TECHNIQUES
Thanks in advance for the postings you made.
51
Editing tips
+ print off your document
+ use track changes in Word
+ take time away
+ read out loud
Slide: Editing tips
In order to edit the most effectively, some general tips include:
+ print off your document this forces us to slow down and read the things we wrote
and process the info differently
+ use track changes in Word – ability to track comments, delete, add, great tool when
editing others work and for learning
+ Take time away – take a walk, come back with new energy, fresh eyes
+ read out loud – forces you to slow down
Now that we’ve identified some great techniques to editing your work, let’s try to put
some of this into practice right away.
52
Outcome:
Apply general techniques to develop
concise sentences
Slide: Outcome > concise sentences
Let’s work to develop concise sentences
Within professional, business‐oriented communication, one of the more critical
components is to ensure that you are writing in a concise manner – or in a way that
makes it quick and easy for the recipient of your message to understand what you’re
trying to communicate.
53
Chisel away
Slide: Chisel away…
When I was doing some research to prepare this section of our class today, one great
comparison I found was that editing your work to make it more concise is similar to
the experience that someone who is making a sculpture or statue will experience. In
this case it is a totem pole.
You start out with a giant block of stone or wood, and then you slowly carve or chisel
away until you achieve the end result that you’re happy with. With each movement of
your hand, the object generally gets a bit smaller, and more defined.
Throughout the writing process, the aim is really to eliminate any excess words so
that your communication is clear and easy to understand.
54
Meaningful words
“When I started my own business, it has given me a
whole new perspective to see the bigger picture when
it comes to finding a work/life balance.” (27 words)
Slide: Meaningful words
A great first step is to focus on the most meaningful words in your sentence so you
can understand what your message should ultimately communicate.
Here’s an example:
“When I started my own business, it has given me a whole new perspective to see
the bigger picture when it comes to finding a work/life balance.” (27 words)
QUESTION: Which would you say are the most meaningful words here? Which
communicate the major purpose or ideas within the sentence?
55
Meaningful words
“When I started my own business, it has given me a
whole new perspective to see the bigger picture when
it comes to finding a work/life balance.” (27 words)
Slide: Meaningful words(1)
“When I started my own business, it has given me a whole new perspective to see
the bigger picture when it comes to finding a work/life balance.”
Now let’s take those key words and carve away the ones that aren’t as important and
see what we end up with:
56
Meaningful words
“When I started my own business, it has given me a
whole new perspective to see the bigger picture when
it comes to finding a work/life balance.” (27 words)
“Starting my own business has given me a new
perspective on work/life balance. (13 words)
Slide: Meaningful words (2)
“Starting my own business has given me a new perspective on work/life balance. (13
words)
Notice that “bigger picture” – even though it was an important word/phrase no
longer appears, because it’s very similar in meaning to when we say “new
perspective”, so we’ve just removed it altogether.
[Reference: https://www.enchantingmarketing.com/write‐clear‐and‐concise‐
sentences/]
57
Conciseness and circumstance
• Wordy: Please note that you are requested to read and offer
your comments on the attached file.
• Terse or impolite: Read this. Get back to me.
• Concise and polite: Please review and comment on the
attached file.
Slide: Conciseness and Circumstance
We also need to be mindful, though, that some situations require that we use longer
sentences, especially based on the type of tone we wish to establish.
For example:
Wordy: Please note that you are requested to read and offer your comments on the
attached file.
Terse or impolite: Read this. Get back to me.
Concise and polite: Please review and comment on the attached file.
In other cases, the tool you use to communicate with may dictate your level of
conciseness… like twitter which is limited to 140 characters.
Impt to choose the words carefully to make the most impact in a short amount of
time.
58
Some considerations
• over‐complicated word use
commence vs. begin
utilize vs. use
• vague references
users can communicate vocally in real time using this
new device vs.
users can use this new cell phone
Slide: Some considerations
Some general tips to consider when planning your communication, and when editing,
is to look for some of the following:
+ over‐complicated word use (e.g. commence vs. begin; utilize vs. use)
Different than academic writing slightly or in say English literature. In professional
business communication you want to use plain, clear, and specific language.
+ vague references (e.g. users can communicate vocally in real time using this new
device vs. users can use this new cell phone)
59
Some considerations
• excessive detail
I received and read the email that you sent to me
yesterday about the report you’re writing for the
project
vs. I received your email about the project report.
• redundant words
reiterate again; enter into
Slide: Some considerations (2)
+ excessive detail (e.g. I received and read the email that you sent to me yesterday
about the report you’re writing for the project vs. I received your email about the
project report.)
+ redundant words (e.g. reiterate again; enter into) ‐ mean the same thing.
These are the details we should be looking for in the editing stage.
60
STOP: (re)‐write
activity
*required
Slide: Quick (re)‐write
Now, what I’d like you to do is go back to the original discussion forum where you
posted your career goal.
Find your original posting and click ‘reply’.
Now, using the techniques that were described in this video, please try to re‐write
your original posting but to cut the text in half (or as close as possible).
I recommend going sentence by sentence and making adjustments accordingly.
Post your final revised version in the forum. Reply to your original post
61
Academic
Instructional
Informal
Journalistic
Persuasive
Poetic
Technical
Professional
Descriptive
Narrative
https://www.google.ca/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwiszcXYzZDcAhXplFQKHd7WBFEQjRx6BAgBEAU&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.insidehighered.com
%2Fviews%2F2017%2F01%2F03%2Fwe‐should‐stop‐distinguishing‐between‐creative‐and‐other‐forms‐writing‐essay&psig=AOvVaw2WcCiO5cAJvNC6QdLHGcwx&ust=1531177143776141
Slide: Styles of writing
In this segment we’re going to discuss some differences between styles of writing.
Slide: Many styles of writing
There are many styles of writing that we encounter on a daily basis.
When we talk about styles of writing, we refer to different ways of using words to
create meaning.
For example, a poetic style of writing tends to use very descriptive words to help
provide a strong visual for the read, often intended to evoke emotion. In contrast,
academic writing tends to be more fact‐based, use more complex words, and isn’t
concerned necessarily with eliciting a strong visual or emotional response.
62
TONE
• Humerous
• Affectionate
• Critical
• Serious
• Excited
• Sarcastic
• Disapproving
• Enthusiastic
Slide: Tone
It’s also possible to convey a certain tone – also referred to as a register or genre ‐
within each writing style – or in other words a kind of mood that your message is
trying to convey.
Humerous
Affectionate
Critical
Serious
Excited
Sarcastic
Disapproving
Enthusiastic
63
TONE: an example
• I can’t believe you just said that to me!!!
• I can’t believe you just said that to me 
Slide: An example (1)
In this example, what type of tone or mood do you think the sender is trying to
convey?
I can’t believe you just said that to me!!!
I can’t believe you just said that to me 😊
64
TONE: an example
• Unfortunately, I cannot access my email. Please let me
know if it’s an issue on my end or if it’s impacting the
whole network. Thank you.
• I can’t access my email!
What’s wrong?
Slide: An example (2)
Or
Unfortunately, I cannot access my email. Please let me know if it’s an issue on my end
or if it’s impacting the whole network. Thank you.
I can’t access my email! What’s wrong?
65
Academic
Journalistic
Persuasive
Technical
Descriptive
Instructional
Informal
Poetic
Professional
Narrative
https://www.google.ca/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwiszcXYzZDcAhXplFQKHd7WBFEQjRx6BAgBEAU&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.insidehighered.com
%2Fviews%2F2017%2F01%2F03%2Fwe‐should‐stop‐distinguishing‐between‐creative‐and‐other‐forms‐writing‐essay&psig=AOvVaw2WcCiO5cAJvNC6QdLHGcwx&ust=1531177143776141
Slide: Many styles of writing (2)
To keep us focused, today we’re going to focus on informal versus professional
writing style and tone.
66
Professional writing style and tone
Dear Dr. Francis,
I hope that you are doing well.
Would you have 30 minutes tomorrow
afternoon to review my Memo for the
Dean on the proposed increase to our
budget?
I would value your perspective
based on your experience.
https://www.google.ca/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwj0zofJoo7cAhUFKXwKHUsTB‐
4QjRx6BAgBEAU&url=http%3A%2F%2Feucbeniki.sio.si%2Fang1%2F3199%2Findex2.html&psig=AOvVaw1icLKB1nuLsd‐
DMMRlOb2W&ust=1531096879471945
I look forward to hearing from
you.
John
Slide: What do we mean by professional writing and tone?
I’m going to show you two different types of communication now. Please read each
one.
67
Comparing the two styles
How would you characterize this
informal
message? Professional or informal?
+ Short‐hand (text‐chat)
+ Contractions
+ Colloquial words/expressions
+ Lack of formal acknowledgment
+ Short and simple “sentences”
+ Rapid response
Slide: Comparing the two styles (informal)
Let’s take a look at the example on the left.
QUESTION: How would you characterize this message? And why?
Informal.
Short‐hand text
Contractions
Colloquial words/expressions
Lack of formal acknowledgement
Short and simple “sentences”
Rapid response
68
Comparing the two styles
Dear Dr. Francis,,
How would you characterize this
I hope that you are doing well.
message? Professional or informal?
Would you have 30 minutes tomorrow + Longer sentences
afternoon to review my Memo for the
+ Lack of contractions
Dean on the proposed increase to our
+ Formal vocabulary
budget?
I would value your perspective
+ Formal acknowledgment and closing
+ Neutral emotion
based on your experience.
+ Complete and succinct
thoughts
I look forward to hearing from
you.
Lindsay
Slide: Comparing the two styles (formal)
Now let’s take a look at the other example.
QUESTION: How would you characterize this message? And why?
Formal or professional
Longer sentences
Lack of contractions
Formal language
Formal acknowledgement and closing
Neutral emotion
Complete thoughts
69
Comparing the two styles
Informal
Professional
• Short‐hand (text‐chat)
• Longer sentences
• Contractions
• Lack of contractions
• Colloquial words/expressions
• Formal language
• Lack of formal acknowledgement
• Formal acknowledgement and
• Short and simple “sentences”
• Rapid response
closing
• Neutral emotion
• Complete thoughts
Review differences table.
70
CMNS 1140 –
Intro to Professional
Communication
Module 3
1
The benefits and
challenges of using email
for business
This video is going to discuss the benefits and challenges of using email for business
2
Email
Email
The most common way to communicate with anyone in a professional setting is
through email – and all forecasts indicate that the use of email in business is only
going to increase.
3
Benefits &
Challenges
Benefits and Challenges
There are many benefits and challenges that email presents when communicating in
general – not even in the workplace. This lesson will describe some of these for us to
consider and will present them as both benefits (or pros), and challenges (cons)
4
Efficiency
Pro:
Increased
efficiency
Con:
Too
efficient?
Tip:
Ask yourself – does this
require an email?
Efficiency
Pro: Increased efficiency
People have very short attention spans now and very little time so email is generally a
quick way to communicate with others. Email is generally shorter than any other form
of business communication so it lends itself well to communicating specific pieces of
information.
Con: Too efficient?
Because email is SO easy and quick to send, people sometimes abuse this ability.
Often I will receive 50+ emails per day in my capacity teaching in 3 departments,
volunteer work, organizing kids schedules etc. This was on top of the hours of
meetings I often have on any given day. It would generally take me at least an extra
two or three hours each night after a full work day to try to get through my emails;
and even then I would rarely make it through all of them. This results in delays in my
responses to people and sometimes some of projects or tasks not getting done
because I would miss a message that had a request.
Tip: Ask yourself is an email is actually required. We often become lazy because it’s
easy for us to email someone for an answer. Instead, can you find the information on
5
your own? Or is there a way to communicate the information over the phone or in‐
person even? Try to limit emails to when you require some action to be taken by the
recipient, or if you need to inform people about a certain topic.
5
Timeliness
Pro:
Instant
communication
Con:
Assumed
priority
Tip:
Indicate a timeline in your
subject line
Timeliness
Pro: Instant communication
Because it is essentially instant, email can be a very timely tool. For example, if I need
to communicate something quickly to a group of people I can send an email and
generally speaking they will receive it faster than if I needed to get up and physically
meet them, or even if I had to pick up the phone and have a conversation.
Con: Assumed priority
Have you ever run into a situation where you’ve sent someone an email to get a quick
response, but you haven’t heard back from them right away? I suspect it’s happened
many times to several of you. It happens to me on a regular basis. It’s because people
have other priorities. They’re working on other tasks, in a meeting, taking a much
needed break to go for a walk, or trying to respond to the 99 other emails they’ve
received. Just because you send a message instantly through email does not mean
that people are going to read it as soon as they receive it.
Tip: If your message is truly urgent or requires a response by a certain time then put
the word urgent in the subject line, or put the deadline in the subject line. For
example: Decision needed by 3pm today (Mon) on ABC Project.
6
Written
record
Pro:
Permanent and
searchable
Con:
Never fully
gone
Tip:
Ask yourself: Would you share
what you’ve written with others?
Written record
Pro: Email can be great for creating a permanent written record of your
communication. This is useful when you need to refer back to information in the
future, or if you ever need some form of proof that you communicated or completed
something that you were responsible for.
Access old emails, look for history. Multitasking lots of roles ‐ email folders and need
to be able to reference.
Con: Email is a permanent written record and is generally not secure – even if you
delete something it can generally be recovered, or someone may have saved or
printed it after you sent it to them. As a result, you need to be careful with what you
put in writing. You also cannot generally control who the information is shared with.
There’s that little option called “Forward” enables someone to forward your email to
anyone they want.
Tip: Only write something in an email if you would be okay with having someone
print it and give it to all of their friends, who could then give it to their friends and
beyond. In other words, remember that very little that is communicated through
7
email is actually private or confidential.
7
Organization
Pro:
Keeps us
organized
Con:
Creates
noise
Tip:
Focus on descriptive subject lines
Organization
Pro: Email helps to keep us organized because you can often group emails that
discuss the same subject as a thread so that all of the messages that are related are
kept together. Additionally, email allows us to include attachments – files like Word
documents, Powerpoint Presentations, PDF files, etc. Email is generally searchable as
well based on key words, the sender’s name, and dates sent or received which can
make it easier to track down information as quickly as possible.
Con: As I noted previously, I received a ton of emails per day. It became impossible
for me to get through them all. And what I discovered was that at least 30% of what I
received was what I would consider ‘noise’ – they were messages that weren’t
important or relevant to me; and most were definitely not as urgent as the sender
had indicated originally. Wish that sender had thought twice.
Tip: Try to create subject lines that are very specific to what is being discussed in the
body of the email. We’ll discuss more about subject lines in another video.
8
Communicating to many
Pro:
Mass
communication
Con:
Lack of
clarity
Tip:
Answer the question: Why does
[name] need to receive this?
Communicating to many
Pro: Email is great to communicate with many people at one time. Some companies,
for example, can communicate with hundreds of thousands of people at one time.
Many of you will be on company maillists. Does anyone sign up for travel alerts or
sales notifications from your favourite stores? It mostly comes through email. You can
imagine how inefficient it would be to receive it through printed mail or by phone!
Con: Often it can be unclear as to why each specific person is receiving the message.
This happens a lot with the ‘cc function’ – which stands for carbon copy. The CC
function is intended to include people who would benefit from knowing the
information but who are not directly involved in doing anything. For example, if one
of your team members calls in sick for a work shift, the shift supervisor may email the
store manager and copy all of the associates so that the associates just know that
their peer won’t be at work, but it doesn’t necessarily mean that they need to do
anything about it.
Tip: Be aware of why you’re sending the communication to every single person who
is receiving it. If you can’t answer the question “why does Sandeep need to receive
this?” then you probably shouldn’t be including Sandeep in the message.
9
Cost
Pro:
Free!
Con:
Intangible
costs
Tip:
Answer the question: Is the email
absolutely necessary? Does it add
value?
Cost
Pro: A huge benefit is that email is free from a cost‐perspective. You can email 1
person or 10,000 people and it costs the same amount. It’s also a very sustainable
way to communicate with people and has a low environmental cost.
Con: Email can be very expensive as well if you don’t use it properly. I don’t mean
expensive in terms of the cost to send, but more in the cost of say losing a customer
because you’ve emailed them too much and they unsubscribe from you. Or, perhaps
you put something in writing that you shouldn’t have and you lose your job as a
result. I know of someone who had this happen. They sent an email to their colleague
saying that their boss was an idiot; the problem was that they accidentally sent it
directly to their boss. Not a good idea.
Tip: Always think twice before sending an email. Ask yourself if the email is absolutely
necessary, ensure that you have a key call to action in the subject line, and make sure
that you can understand why every single who you’re sending it to will benefit from
its contents.
End of video 1.
10
10
When it’s best to
use email
11
When email is best
.
Email is certainly a great tool to use, but only under certain circumstances. This video
describes when it’s best to consider using email.
12
Sending fast
communication
Email is best for:
Sending fast communication
If you need to quickly communication a message, especially to more than one person,
then email is a great tool for this. For example, if an urgent meeting is called for
tomorrow morning then I would likely email my team to inform them to adjust their
schedules
13
Crafting short
and simple
messages
Crafting short and simple messages (general requests/replies)
Primarily use email when your messages are short and simple, such as a general
request for someone to do something, or a reply to someone else’s email. For
example, I may email my colleague to ask that they please print off five copies of a
presentation that is due for tomorrow.
Also ensure that you have a single purpose for your message. Each email that you
send should only be about one specific topic or subject. For example, if I’m sending
you an email announcing that I’ve launched Module 4 of this course, I’m not going to
use the same email to encourage you to run for a position on the Kwantlen Student
Association’s board of directors. They’re two different types of information and each
one should have it’s own email.
14
Communicating
short‐lived
information
Communicating short‐lived information (FYI)
– Email is best to use when you need to communicate information that is intended to
be for someone’s information (of what we refer to as FYI in North America) and that
they can read quickly and consider or file away. For example, perhaps our email
server will be taken offline for quick maintenance on Wednesday from midnight to
2am. Because it’s not serious and most people won’t be directly impacted (because
they’ll hopefully be sleeping) an email would be a great way to send this information.
15
Distributing generic
and non‐sensitive
information
Distributing generic and non‐sensitive information
If the information you are sending is not confidential in nature then email can be a
safe and efficient way to transmit the message. As an example, I used email to
welcome you all to this course just before the first module began. However, if I
experience an issue with a student who is violating a KPU policy then I may revert to
a phone call to check in with that student and have a conversation as I wouldn’t want
any allegations to be shared more broadly, even by accident.
16
Communicating
general
information
internally and/or
externally
Communicating general information with both internal and/or external
stakeholders
Building on the previous point, email is used to communicate with both internal
people (so, other employees) and with external people (generally customers or
clients).
17
Introducing
attachments
Dear Abby,
Attached you will find a copy
of the course presentation.
Please review it and then
login to Moodle to complete
the quiz.
Please let me know if you
have any questions.
Kind regards,
Lindsay
introducing attachments (memos, reports, etc.)
If you need someone to review a document then sending it as an attachment via
email is great. However, always ensure that you let the person know that you’ve
attached a file, what it is, and if you need them to do anything with it. For example, if
I email you a copy of our course presentation then I should indicate that I’ve included
the course presentation and that I’d like you to review it and then login to Moodle to
complete the quiz. If you don’t describe the attachment then people may not identify
that it’s there or they may not know that they need to do anything with it.
Here is an example of how I would send an email. Simple way to introduce info
18
Conveying
a relatively
informal tone
Conveying a relatively informal tone
Email is generally seen as a fairly informal way of communicating in the workplace. If
you need to address something that is more formal in nature – like a new policy, a
change in process, a detailed explanation of a new project, or looking into comparing
data or information– then I recommend you consider a memo, proposal, or report –
we’ll discuss all of these in separate videos.
19
#1 email mistake.
..?
The number one common email mistake
I want you to take a moment now to think about what the largest mistake is that
people make when they send an email. Pause this video until you have the answer.
The #1 mistake: Believe it or not, it’s emailing when angry.
When we are angry we usually don’t think very clearly, and we generally may be
inclined to type something in an email that we really don’t mean, and that may
negatively impact our relationship with someone in the future.
You WILL get angry at some point either with your coworkers or a client, and it’s
important to acknowledge when you are. I hope you can think back to this video
when you are back in this situation.
One tip is to sit on it for 24 hours (or sleep on it) and revisit the email draft in the
morning.
That said, I’ve found a great article that can help you identify what you should do
20
when you’re angry – and spoiler alert – it involves not sending the message at all.
Check out the reading I’ve posted directly below this video.
Read this: Instead of emailing while angry, do this.
https://www.forbes.com/sites/danabrownlee/2019/03/07/instead‐of‐emailing‐while‐
angry‐do‐this/#89dc81946177
End video.
20
How to format a
business email
This video will go over how to format a business emai
Email generally come with a standard format – at least components that you’ll want
to ensure that you include.
21
Standard format
• Subject line
• Salutation
• Body
• Close
Standard format
Subject line – specific and detailed (action‐oriented)
Proper salutation
Body
Close
Let’s go into more detail
22
Subject line
Subject line
The subject line is the first thing that anyone will see when you send a message. It’s
essentially a title for your email and is arguably the most important part of the email.
It helps the reader know what to expect and also helps establish if they should open
it sooner rather than later.
Instead of me spending 10 minutes going over how to write a great subject line, I’ve
found a great article on how to write excellent subject lines that I’ve posted directly
below this video. Please take a few moments to review it.
Read this: https://www.businessinsider.com/how‐to‐write‐an‐email‐subject‐line‐
2015‐1#here‐are‐some‐examples‐of‐excellent‐email‐subject‐lines‐19
23
Salutation
• Hi Lindsay,
• Dear Lindsay,
• Hello Lindsay,
• Hey ,Lindsay
Salutation
The salutation is what appears at the top of your email. It looks like this:
Hi Lindsay,
Dear Lindsay,
Hello Lindsay,
Hey Lindsay,
Etc.
I recommend that you always include a salutation in your emails – especially if you
haven’t previously met the person.
Also, please ensure that you generally use more formal salutations with people who
you don’t know well. For example, Hey Lindsay is considered a very informal
salutation and something you should really just use with friends or people who you
are close with. Instead, in business‐oriented emails always aim for Dear, Hello, or Hi.
This applies to all emails that you send to me in this course.
We are practicing professional communications in this course, so please don’t email
24
me and say “ Hey”
24
Body
• Keep it concise
• Link to external resources
• Use short sentences and ‘paragraphs’
• Incorporate lists
Body
The body is where all of your content goes.
Keep it concise (use attachments for more complicated information)
Link people to external resources (websites) for background info
Use short sentences and ‘paragraphs’. In email, a standard paragraph is generally only
one or two sentences long.
Incorporate lists when you’re trying to communicate multiple items that should be
addressed or considered.
25
Body
Dear Caliope,
Here are the five items I need for you to complete today: Read the article that I’ve
posted, watch the three videos, respond to the discussion forum, complete the
quiz, and provide me with feedback.
____________________________________________________________
Dear Caliope,
Here are the five items I need for you to complete today:
• Read the article that I’ve posted
• Watch the three videos
• Respond to the discussion forum
• Complete the quiz
• Provide me with feedback
Example
For example, I could write:
Dear Caliope,
Here are the five items I need for you to complete today: Read the article that I’ve
posted, watch the three videos, respond to the discussion forum, complete the quiz,
and provide me with feedback.
OR, I could write it this way using a list:
Dear Caliope,
Here are the five items I need for you to complete today:
Read the article that I’ve posted
Watch the three videos
Respond to the discussion forum
Complete the quiz
Provide me with feedback
If we compare the two I hope you can identify that the second email – while longer in
visual length – is a lot easier to read, and the items that I’m requesting are a lot
clearer as well – almost like a checklist.
26
That’s what we are aiming for in Business Communications. We want to make it easy
for people to read
26
Close
• Thanks very much for your attention to the above.
• Please let me know if you have any questions.
• I appreciate your involvement with this project.
• Take good care.
• Kind regards.
• Sincerely.
Close
Finally, at the end of your email is the close. This is generally a nice sentiment that
you leave. Some examples:
Thanks very much for your attention to the above.
Please let me know if you have any questions.
I appreciate your involvement with this project.
Take good care.
Kind regards.
Sincerely.
Don’t put all of them in. 1‐2.
And then we follow these with our first name.
27
[Subject line] Tasks to be completed today – Sept 21.
[Salutation]
Dear Bob,
[Body]
Here are the five items I need for you to complete today:
+ Read the article that I’ve posted
+ Watch the three videos
+ Respond to the discussion forum
+ Complete the quiz
+ Provide me with feedback
[Close]
Please let me know if you have any questions at all.
Kind regards,
Lindsay
The completed product
Now, if we put it all together our completed email should look something like this:
[Subject line] Tasks to be completed today – September 21.
[Salutation] Dear Bob,
[Body] Here are the five items I need for you to complete today:
Read the article that I’ve posted
Watch the three videos
Respond to the discussion forum
Complete the quiz
Provide me with feedback
[Close] Please let me know if you have any questions at all.
Kind regards,
Lindsay
28
End Video. Thank you. How to format a business email.
28
What is a memo and
when should I use one?
29
Memos
Memos
Now let’s take a look at the second most common business communication tool; the
Memo.
I suspect many of you have encountered Memos, you just weren’t necessarily aware
that they were Memos!
30
What’s a memo?
• Early 1900’s
• Many forms
• (Generally) internal
• One specific message/issue
• Communicate to individuals and broad groups
• A ‘quick read’
• Written concisely
• Written record
Slide: So, what is a Memo?
Historically, it’s been the most frequently used form of communication in the
workplace – dating back to the early 1900’s.
Memo’s can take many forms:
Announcements
Reminders
Instructions
Invitations
Summaries
guidelines
These are (Generally) internal documents that are meant for employees to review
and read.
They are focused on one specific message/issue, and
Used to communicate to either a single individual or even a broad group of
employees
Similar to emails, Memo’s are Intended to be a ‘quick read’ and to ‘get to the point’
(1‐2 pages max)
As a result, they need to be written concisely (stick to the facts), and
31
Used to maintain a written record (history/reference)
31
Memos – best use
• Detailed information
• Significant importance
• Longer‐term reference
• Preserving message format
• Intended for print
• Confidential information
• More formal tone than email
• Internal
Best use
Now let’s discuss when it’s best to use a memo. When should we use them?
Including detailed information: If you’re going to include detailed information then a
Memo is best. For example, when COVID‐19 first hit mid‐semester in Spring, I had to
quickly communicate to my students all the changes that were going to happen when
we moved our semester online over night. The information was a bit complicated and
lengthy so I chose to use a Memo to explain it all.
Communicating a message of significant importance: Like I just noted, if your
message is important then you’ll want to likely put it into a Memo. Again, when KPU
moved to fully online instruction, all faculty members were sent a Memo from the
President describing what was going to happen.
Memo helps to formalize the information.
Sharing information that is meant to be referenced in future: if the information is
intended to be referenced in the future then a Memo is best as it can be printed or
saved more easily than an email can in some cases. Let’s say that you work at
32
McDonald’s and they’re making lots of changes to how customers and employees
interact because of COVID‐19. They will likely want to document those changes in a
Memo so that people can refer to it in future.
Preserving the formatting of information: If the way that the information is laid out
on the page is important then I recommend you use a Memo as it can be saved as a
PDF. Too often when you get an email, especially if it’s been forwarded, the
formatting can look all funny. Words may be out of place and things like bold
headings may disappear making it harder to read.
Information that is intended to be printed: If you want the information to be printed
then put it into a Memo. Often if you try to print from an email directly the
formatting may not look the same and it may present challenges for people to
interpret the information.
Maintaining and transmitting confidential information: If the information that
you’re communicating is confidential then it’s best to put it in a Memo instead of an
email. You can simply print off the memo and physically hand it to the person who
needs it. This is especially important when it’s regarding sensitive financial or HR
matters as you don’t want someone to be able to simply forward that information to
someone who shouldn’t know about it.
Conveying a more formal tone than an email: In general, Memo’s are used as a more
formal way of communicating than email. If you want to set a more formal tone for
something then you can put it into Memo format.
Distributing information to internal stakeholders: Memos are only intended for
internal audiences (essentially employees). They aren’t meant to be sent to clients or
customers.
END VIDEO – understanding what a memo is and why we should use one.
32
How to format a memo
33
Standard format
• Header area
• Body
Standard format
Similar to emails, Memos also have a relatively standard format that include:
Header area
Body
34
Header
• To: identifies the destination/person/
• From: identifies the author
• Subject: identifies the topic or purpose
• Date: the complete and current date
• CC: “Carbon Copy” – secondary audience
Slide: Header
Standard components:
To: identifies the destination/person/people to whom the message is addressed
From: Identifies the author of the memo – job title can provide
context/validity/authority
Subject: Identifies the topic or purpose
Date: the complete and current date
CC: “Carbon Copy” – the name of anyone else who should receive the memo
(secondary audience)
35
Body
• Opening/Introduction
• Middle
• Closing > Call to action
Slide: Body
Opening/Introduction (purpose and/or action)
Middle (background/details/points – organize as bullets/headings)
Closing > Call to action (brief summary and next steps)
36
Should I use an email or
a memo?
37
Email vs. Memo
Three key factors:
1. the nature of the message;
2. the depth/number of its details; and
3. its likelihood of being printed for easier reference.
Key considerations: Emails vs. Memos
In organizations in which email reaches every employee (or every employee in the
memo’s audience), writers must determine whether to send a memo or an email
message to convey their information. In cases such as this, writers should consider
three factors:
1. the nature of the message,
2. the depth/number of its details, and
3. its likelihood of being printed for easier reference.
38
Email vs. Memo
Speed
Information
Permanence
Sensitivity
Format
(protected?)
Tone
To print
Audience
Email
Instant
Short/simple
(request/reply)
Short‐lived
Generic (low)
Unimportant
Memo
Delayed
Detailed/complex
Informal
Not necessarily
Internal & external
Formal
Yes
Internal
Future reference
Confidential (med‐high)
Important
Email versus Memo
Email is best for:
sending fast communication
crafting short and simple messages (general requests/replies)
communicating short‐lived information (FYI)
distributing generic and non‐sensitive information
introducing attachments (memos, reports, etc.)
conveying a relatively informal tone
communicating general information with both internal and/or external stakeholders
Memos are best for:
Including detailed information (instructions)
Communicating a message of significant importance (new/revised policies)
Sharing information that is meant to be referenced in future
Preserving the formatting of information
Information that is intended to be printed (use away from computer)
Maintaining and transmitting confidential information
Conveying a more formal tone than an email
Distributing information to internal stakeholders
39
To read: http://www.businesswritingblog.com/business_writing/2015/06/when‐to‐
write‐a‐memo‐not‐an‐email.html
39
When do we use
proposals?
Proposals
Let’s now look at another common tool that we use in the work place: proposals.
40
Proposals
Thanks for sticking with me – we are almost at the end of this module
Let’s now look at another common tool that we use in the work place: proposals.
Another common tool we use – not like this proposal – hopefully you won’t be
making too many! But you will be using quite a bit in the workplace. Similar to a
marriage proposal, it’s about convincing or persuading someone to make a decision.
41
What is a proposal?
• Focus: solving a relatively simple
“problem”
• Persuasive
• Internal or external
• Potentially a response
• Seeks action
• Stress reader benefits
• Involves (limited) research
• Entice decisions
• Generally short.
What is a proposal?
A persuasive document! It’s intention is to help convince someone to take some form
of action – as examples, it may be to approve an idea, to make a change to a current
process, or to enable you to do something.
They focus on solving a relatively simple “problem” or “issue”
Use a less formal tone by incorporating the first person voice of (I, we, etc.)
Internal or external audiences
Potentially a response to what is called a “Request for Proposal” or RFP where
companies might be seeking some information. For example, KPU might be looking to
increase the number of composting bins on campus. They might issue a request for
proposal that asks any companies who build compost bins to submit a proposal that
describes how their product will be a great fit for KPU’s needs.
Proposals generally seek immediate action in terms of a decision being made
Always stresses reader benefits.
Involves some form of research due to space constraints
They’re designed to entice decisions (rather than inform) – the ultimate aim is for
someone to respond to you with an answer. It’s not just about them to think about it,
but to take action.
42
Generally short(ish) (3‐20 pages)
42
Proposal examples
• Bidding for work/contracts
• Introducing a new initiative
• Selling a product
• Changing a process.
Examples
Bidding for work/contracts
Introducing a new initiative at work
Selling a product to someone
Changing a process
These are all occasions where you will be a proposal
43
Proposals
Scope
Intention
Tone
Audience
Action
Approach
Research
Length
Proposal
Simple “problem”
Persuade (decision)
Less formal (I/we)
Internal or external
Response
Reader benefits
Limited
Short (3‐10 pgs)
Quick overview of what a proposal entails
44
Memos vs. Emails vs. Proposals
Speed
Information
Permanence
Sensitivity
Format
(protected?)
Tone
Likely to print
Audience
Email
Instant
Short/simple
(request/reply)
Short‐lived
Generic (low)
Unimportant
Informal
Not necessarily
Internal &
external
Memo
Delayed
Somewhat detailed
Proposal
Delayed
Most detailed
Future reference
Confidential (med‐
high)
Important
Future reference
Generally
confidential
Important
Formal
Yes
Internal
Depends
Yes
Internal & external
Here is how memo, email and proposal compare
Speed – will stay around for longer
Proposal – speed is most detailed so takes longer
Info stays around longer
Confidential – usually involves sensitive info or it hasn’t been approved yet
Format – usually word doc and then put into a pdf
Tone: likely more formal if you are sending to the President
Likely printing or referencing this document in the future so keep in mind for
formatting.
Audience is internal & external.
End of video.
45
What goes into a
proposal?
This video describes what goes into a proposal.
46
Proposals
• Introduction
• Issue
• Solution
• Qualifications/Resources
• Conclusion
• Request for Authorization
Proposals
Proposals all look very different and the contents will generally be specified by your
supervisor. However, I did find some great online articles that even have some
examples of what some workplace proposals look like. Please have a look at them as
they should help you better understand this really important tool.
However, in general, most proposals that you’ll write in the workplace will be focused
on pitching an idea or making a recommendation for a change. As a result, they’ll
have the following sections:
Core components of a proposal
Introduction: Provide a brief overview of the issue/opportunity, your identified
solution, and a summary of the costs, and benefits.
Issue: Describe what the actual issue or opportunity is. Ensure you include
background information so that your reader has an understanding of the true impact
that this issue or opportunity may have on the organization. Do some research and
have your facts to support your point.
Solution: How are you going to solve the issue? Here you’ll include your step‐by‐step
47
plan, describe the benefits, and address any potential obstacles that you may face
and how you’ll overcome them.
Qualifications / Resources: Describe what resources will be needed to move forward
with your proposal. For example, perhaps you need a budget, or some staff
resources, or even just some time that you can dedicate towards working on the
initiative.
Conclusion: Summarize all of the sections above with a key focus on what the benefit
will be to the organization if they approve your proposal.
Request for approval: Always include a request for approval at the end and include a
deadline. For example, it may be as simple as: In order for us to meet our timelines
for a October 1 implementation, we will require your approval to move forward by
June 1, 2021.
Please do these readings.
Source: Process.St. (2018). Accessed May 12, 2020: https://www.process.st/how‐to‐
write‐a‐proposal/
To read: https://www.process.st/how‐to‐write‐a‐proposal/
To read: https://writeforbusiness.com/book/write‐business/chapter‐18‐
proposals?gclid=CjwKCAjwkun1BRAIEiwA2mJRWTyS‐
ObVBNhReipbJnHM89HKwCuqqsVomX5ec3kJWZUBr6LrspgOahoCv8IQAvD_BwE
Source: Process.St. (2018). Accessed May 12, 2020: https://www.process.st/how‐to‐
write‐a‐proposal/
To read: https://www.process.st/how‐to‐write‐a‐proposal/
To read: https://writeforbusiness.com/book/write‐business/chapter‐18‐
proposals?gclid=CjwKCAjwkun1BRAIEiwA2mJRWTyS‐
ObVBNhReipbJnHM89HKwCuqqsVomX5ec3kJWZUBr6LrspgOahoCv8IQAvD_BwE
47
CMNS 1140 –
Introduction to
Professional Communication
Module 6
1
What is a bad
news message?
2
Bad news messages
Bad news messages
This lesson is going to discuss bad news messages, and what is a bad news message?
What do we mean by this? What are some insrances of when we will have to deliver
bad news in the workplace.
Bad news is generally something that we need to deliver that is not expected or going
to be appreciated by the person or people who are receiving the information.
3
You are the manager of an outdoor clothing
store. A customer emails you to complain
that she was not allowed to return a jacket.
Unfortunately, the customer’s jacket had
been torn up by her dog. Your refund policy
does not cover this type of damage. You
must tell the customer that you can’t refund
her money, while still maintaining her
business.
Example 1
You are the manager of an outdoor clothing store. A customer emails you to complain
that she was not allowed to return a jacket. Unfortunately, the customer’s jacket had
been torn up by her dog. Your refund policy does not cover this type of damage. You
must tell the customer that you can’t refund her money, while still maintaining her
business.
Any of you who have worked in retail, can probably relate
4
You promised your boss that you would finish
your report by 5 p.m. today. Unfortunately,
you are still waiting for information from
your co‐worker, Pam. Pam and your boss are
good friends. You must let the boss know
that if you don’t get the information from
Pam soon, the report will be late.
Example 2
You promised your boss that you would finish your report by 5 p.m. today.
Unfortunately, you are still waiting for information from your co‐worker, Pam. Pam
and your boss are good friends. You must let the boss know that if you don’t get the
information from Pam soon, the report will be late.
Not a lot of people want to tell their boss they can’t meet a deadline and 2, that the
reason is because of one of their friends. This would be a difficult situation to be in
and message to deliver.
5
You are a manager of a restaurant. Your best
waiter is named Chad. Lots of customers
come in to the restaurant because they love
his service. Unfortunately, Chad has been
rude to the other wait staff and they have
complained to you. Today, you witnessed
Chad yelling at a hostess for a very minor
reason. You need to get Chad to improve his
behaviour, while also maintaining a positive
relationship with him so he doesn’t quit.
Example 3
You are a manager of a restaurant. Your best waiter is named Chad. Lots of customers
come in to the restaurant because they love his service. Unfortunately, Chad has been
rude to the other wait staff and they have complained to you. Today, you witnessed
Chad yelling at a hostess for a very minor reason. You need to get Chad to improve his
behaviour, while also maintaining a positive relationship with him so he doesn’t quit.
I know many of you have shared you work in restaurants and can likely relate.
You basically have to discipline him and be friendly.
These are all examples of when you have to deliver bad news in the workplace.
6
When given bad news…
Readers may:
• Stop reading
• Experience anger and shock
• Take the message personally
• Cut ties with the organization
When given bad news…
QUESTION: What happens when you’re given bad news through writing?
Readers may:
Stop reading (if it’s an email or shut down/stop listening)
Experience anger and shock
Take the message personally
Cut ties with the organization (as customer, say forget it and move on to the
competition).
7
“Often audiences seem to
have a premonition that
bad news is coming and just
as often move to a worst‐
case scenario.”
“Similarly, bad news is difficult
to contain; rumour often
precedes fact.”
Kevin Gass, VP, Marketing and Communications, B.C. Lotteries Corporation
Quote
“Often audiences seem to have a premonition that bad news is coming and just as
often move to a worst‐case scenario… Similarly, bad news is difficult to contain;
rumour often precedes fact.” Kevin Gass, VP, Marketing and Communications, B.C.
Lotteries Corporation
This is why we need to be careful and cautious when we communicate information
that may come across negatively . Rumors and bad news travel quickly usually faster
than good news. Think of all the examples in social media or in your daily life. With
co‐op students, if one student has a negative experience with a firm/employer it will
spread quickly or with a specific course or instructor. I always encourage my students
to be open minded and make the judgement for themselves but that is not always
easy to do in reality.
8
8
Rules of breaking bad news





Be timely
Involve a team
Be honest
Be consistent
Be clear
 Take responsibility
 Don’t hide
 Explain the “why”
 Discuss what’s next
 Encourage questions
Adapted from “Breaking Bad News” IABC Communication World by Dennis Ackley
Rules of breaking bad news
Be timely – don’t delay! If you take too long to deliver the bad news then it’s possible
that someone else may share it (rumours) and it can make the situation much worse.
Alternatively, it may be important to delay a message. For example, if someone’s
parent just passed away, it likely wouldn’t be the ideal time to tell someone they lost
their job.
Involve a team: Don’t just rely on yourself; try to get at least one other person’s
perspective to ensure that what you are intending to communicate comes across
clearly and in the tone you wish to have conveyed.
Be honest: As difficult as it may be, being honest is critical. If you do not provide the
truth then it’s very likely that someone will discover it later and it will cause you may
other problems in the future.
Be consistent: Ensure you use consistent messaging internally and externally. For
example, don’t tell your staff one version of the story and then customers a different
version. It’s likely that someone from your staff team knows a customer and they will
9
compare notes!
Be clear: Ensure your audience will understand the messaging – focus on the
language that you use and how it’s structured. Consider the direct versus indirect
approach, which is covered in the next section of this module.
Take responsibility: It’s really important to assume responsibility when you’re
communicating bad news; try not to point to someone else as being the problem.
This conveys integrity and may garner more respect for you.
Don’t hide: Much like our first point, it’s important that if an issue arises that you get
on top of it and that you are as proactive as possible. If you try to hide away and
pretend like nothing happened then this is going to cause more problem in the long‐
term.
Explain the “why”: People need rationale for decisions that are made and
communicated. Ensure you have your reasoning prepared and that you clearly
communicate this. For example, if someone applied to a university and didn’t get
accepted, it wouldn’t be very good to just send a letter stating: Sorry, you are not
accepted. Instead, it should at least indicate that the student didn’t meet the
minimum GPA requirements (for example).
Discuss what’s next: Try your best to discuss next steps. If someone is going to be laid
off from their job then help them understand the what they can expect will happen
next (e.g. you need to return your keys, our HR department will connect with you to
discuss your transition package, etc.).
Encourage questions: When receiving bad news most people will have questions; it
may not be immediately. Either way, ask the individual(s) if there is anything they’d
like to have clarified. Remember, often when we deliver bad news people do not hear
everything we are saying; it’s possible they have missed a key detail and may require
that it be repeated.
9
What is a bad
news message?
10
Using the
direct vs. indirect
approach to writing
So we’ve discussed the general things we want to include in what we communicate to
others, however we also need to figure out exactly HOW to share the information.
11
Direct vs Indirect approach
Direct vs. Indirect approach
This is where we can determine if we use what we call the direct approach or the
indirect approach to sharing bad news.
12
When to be
direct
• Audience prefers directness
• Critical information must be
presented clearly
• News is expected and is not serious
Rule of thumb: Use when bad
news is minor/will cause your
audience little disappointment, OR
use if information is urgent and
critical.
When to be direct
Reader prefers directness
Critical information must be presented clearly
News is expected and is not serious
Rule of thumb: Use when bad news is minor/will cause your audience little
disappointment OR if the information is urgent and critical.
13
The Direct approach
Direct approach template
This mode showcases how we deliver information using the direct approach. We
present the bad news immediately, followed by our rationale and any potential
alternatives, and then end with a positive close.
Sandwich
14
An example:
The Outlook 2016 Level 2 course, originally scheduled
for March 24, has been cancelled due to low
registration.
In its place please consider one of our complimentary
self‐directed learning courses online.
Please let me know if you’re interested in self‐directed
learning so that I can provide an orientation.
An example
The Outlook 2016 Level 2 course, originally scheduled for March 24, has been
cancelled due to low registration.
In its place, please consider one of our complimentary self‐directed learning courses
online.
Please let me know if you’re interested in self‐directed learning so that I can provide
an orientation.
15
The Outlook 2016 Level 2 course, originally scheduled
for March 24, has been cancelled due to low
registration.
In its place please consider one of our complimentary
self‐directed learning courses online.
Please let me know if you’re interested in self‐directed
learning so that I can provide an orientation.
16
https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau‐covid‐19‐1.5496367 (accessed March 13, 2020)
https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau‐covid‐19‐1.5496367
*note this is clearly not a recent news update but I wanted to include it as an
example
17
When to be
indirect
• Diplomacy is important
• Unfamiliar audience
• Unexpected news/information
• Anticipated strong negative reaction
Rule of thumb: Use when
preparation is needed to help your
audience accept the bad news.
When to be indirect
Diplomacy is important
Unfamiliar audience
Unexpected news/information
Anticipated strong negative reaction
Rule of thumb: Use when preparation is needed to help your audience accept the bad
news.
18
The Indirect approach
Indirect approach slide
Contrary to the direct approach, with the indirect approach we begin with a buffer
that serves as a way to build some rapport with our audience. We then provide
rationale and THEN present the bad news. We then conclude with a positive closing.
19
Examples of
buffers
• Expression of appreciation
• Good or neutral news
• General principle or fact
• Recap of past communication
• Statement of agreement or
common ground
• Apology or statement of
understanding
• Compliment
Examples of buffers
Expression of appreciation
Good or neutral news
General principle or fact
Recap of past communication
Statement of agreement or common ground
Apology or statement of understanding
Compliment
20
Indirect example
Thank you so much for enrolling in the Outlook 2016 Level 2
course – your interest is a great testament to your desire to
expand your skills.
Unfortunately, due to low registration, we have had to cancel
the course. We recognize this is not ideal, though we have
developed a self‐directed alternative that you will hopefully
find to be of value.
We will be planning to schedule another offering of this
Outlook 2016 Level 2 course in the Spring and will be sure to
notify you immediately once registration opens.
Thank you again for your interest and commitment towards
enhancing your skills.
Indirect example
Thank you so much for enrolling in the Outlook 2016 Level 2 course – your interest is
a great testament to your desire to expand your skills.
Unfortunately, due to low registration, we have had to cancel the course. We
recognize this is not ideal, though we have developed a self‐directed alternative that
you will hopefully find to be of value.
We will be planning to schedule another offering of this Outlook 2016 Level 2 course
in the Spring and will be sure to notify you immediately once registration opens.
Thank you again for your interest and commitment towards enhancing your skills.
21
Thank you so much for enrolling in the Outlook 2016 Level 2 course –
your interest is a great testament to your desire to expand your skills.
Unfortunately, due to low registration, we have had to cancel the
course. We recognize this is not ideal, though we have developed a
self‐directed alternative that you will hopefully find to be of value.
We will be planning to schedule another offering of this Outlook 2016
Level 2 course in the Spring and will be sure to notify you immediately
once registration opens.
Thank you again for your interest and commitment towards enhancing
your skills.
22
Using the
direct vs. indirect
approach to writing
23
What do we mean
by persuasion?
Now often when we’re providing negative news to someone we also want to try and
persuade them that things won’t be so bad…
Or if we’re dealing with a situation that isn’t negative at all, then we need to also be
mindful of how we may convince someone that what we’re describing or proposing is
a good idea!
24
What do we mean by
persuasion?
The attempt to influence an
audience’s attitudes, beliefs, or
actions.
What do we mean by persuasion?
QUESTION: What does it mean if we want to persuade someone?
The attempt to influence an audience’s attitudes, beliefs, or actions.
Get people to feel, think, act the way we want them to
Encourage your audience to fulfill your request
25
Logos:
the idea makes sense /
logical
Persuasion
Ethos:
the idea is credible /
comes from authority
Pathos:
the idea has an
emotional connection
Logos, Ethos, Pathos
When we write a persuasive message there are three core elements we need to
consider:
Logos: the idea that we’re sharing makes sense or is logical to the person or group of
people we’re communicating with.
Ethos: The idea that we’re communicating is credible and appears to come from a
place of authority.
Pathos: The idea that we’re communicating has an emotional connection to the
person that we’re communicating with.
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Appealing to
logic (Logos)
• Evidence
• Facts
• Figures
• Benefits
• Reasons
• Criteria
• Standards
Appealing to logic (logos)
If we want people to appeal to logic or a logical outcome or expression then that’s
where we need to embed things like evidence – which is often what we do with our
writing when we embed research and citations.
We should also reply upon using facts to help support our argument. We can also use
supports like embedding figures or tables that display data.
It is also valuable to highlight benefits and reasons (or rationale) for our idea or
decision; that will make it a lot more compelling.
We may also rely upon certain criteria that is transparent, such as when I’m marking
assignments; I’ve provided you with the grading rubrics in advance so you can see the
criteria I will be using to assess your work.
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Appealing to
ethics/credibility
(Ethos)
• Specialized knowledge (expertise)
• Reputation
• Authority (job title)
• Familiarity (relationships /
commonality).
Appealing to ethics/credibility (Ethos)
Ethos refers to credibility or ethics. We want to infuse expertise and maintain a good
reputation for ourselves. If possible try to leverage authority; they may come across
as being more reputable. We may also want to appeal to our relationships with
people, or our familiarity or commonality with them.
Building trust with your audience.
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Think of ETHOS as a means of convincing an audience by offering reliability, honesty,
and credibility. This usually means a respected authority figure or celebrity giving a
product or brand a testimonial or endorsement
Lebron James and Nike
He’s one of the most respected, credible, and talented basketball players of all time.
Nike’s logo does appear, but its flash is brief and tasteful.
This ethos appeal leaves no doubt that Nike and LeBron are in it to win it, together.
Even though it’s subtle.
And doesn’t this ethos commercial make you want to try on a new pair of Nikes as
soon as possible? Don’t you want to be like LeBron? If you have to buy basketball
shoes, might as well buy the best, right?
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Appealing to emotion (Pathos)
• Security
• Excitement
• Achievement
• Adventure
• Belonging
• Understanding
• Helpfulness
• Pride
• Manipulation
• Distortion
• Guilt
• Hostility
• Dishonesty
• Shaming
• Blaming
Slide: Appealing to emotion (Pathos)
Finally we want to appeal to emotion. We want to encourage people to think that
we’re telling them will lead to greater security, excitement, achievement, adventure
or belonging to a group. They may even gain a better understanding or that whatever
you’re recommending will be very helpful or increase their pride.
What we want to avoid, though, is manipulation, distortion of facts, making people
feel guilty, and being hostile. We also want to avoid being dishonest, shaming people,
or blaming them as well.
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Example of pathos – invoking happiness – bright field, sunshine, refreshing‐ appealing
to your emotions, triggering specific feelings of joy and happiness
So, what we’ve just heard is essentially that we require all three aspects of Logos,
Ethos, and Pathos to truly persuade someone to do or believe in something that
we’re asking for.
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When do we persuade?
Sales
Job
applications
Favours
Exceptions
Donations
Other?
Slide: When do we persuade?
We persuade all the time. Some examples are when we try to sell something to
someone, or when we apply for a job, if we ask for favours, if we ask for exceptions
(like assignment deadline extensions), asking for donations – and many other
opportunities.
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A key requirement
Credibility
• Facts
• Objectivity
• Sources
• Sincerity
• Expertise • Good intention
• Enthusiasm
A key requirement: credibility
A key requirement if we’re going to persuade anyone is that we need to be credible.
That’s where logos, ethos, and pathos come in; but in general we want to use facts,
good courses of information, reinforcing our own expertise or finding someone who
has expertise in a given area. We also want to ensure we come across as being
sincere – we’re not trying to trick people or convince them to do something that isn’t
in their best interest.
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Key questions when preparing
What do you
want the
audience to do?
What motivates
the audience?
What is the best
way to get the
message across?
What objections
may arise?
Tool/medium/
channel
Design and layout
Framed in a
positive tone
Key questions when preparing
Key questions to be asking ourselves when preparing a persuasive message or
argument is what do you want your audience to do? What’s your purpose? What type
of response are you looking for?
You may also ask what motivates your audience? Why is this important information
for them and how will it benefit or impact them in some way?
What’s the best way to get the message across? Let’s go back to the basic
communication process model; the tool or the channel is so important. What is the
best way to be delivering this information? Should you be designing it a certain way,
laying it out a certain way, and what kind of tone will you use? Try your best to frame
it in a positive tone where possible by highlighting benefits. Perhaps acknowledge
there will be challenges, but highlight the positive aspects.
Think about what objectives might arise; what might your audience disagree with?
And how might you prepare yourself to address those issues? If someone says “I
don’t have money to spend on this” – that may be one of their objectives. Try then to
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figure out why it would be important for them to redirect another portion of their
budget to fund the request that you have.
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What music and Aristotle can teach us
about persuasion
http://ed.ted.com/lessons/what‐aristotle‐and‐joshua‐bell‐can‐teach‐us‐about‐persuasion‐conor‐neill#review
Video – Aristotle and music
Have a look at this video to learn a little more about persuasion – I’ve included it as a
separate link on our Moodle site, directly beneath this video:

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What do we mean
by persuasion?
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The AIDA approach
to persuasive
messages
AIDA
Let’s explore the AIDA approach that we might take to actually communicate with
people in a persuasive way. This is a variation on the in‐direct approach.
Let’s look now at what AIDA stands for:
A – Attention: Encourage audience to want to hear your message. Grab their
attention. (summarize a problem) – often you can use a story or even infuse humour.
I – Interest: Provide additional details that prompt audience to imagine how a
solution will benefit them. Keep their interest. Use facts, figures. Make sure you find
credible sources/expert opinion. And stress reader benefits as much as possible.
D – Desire: Get audiences to embrace your idea, be clear how it will benefit them and
answer potential objections (minimize resistance). Prepare and present any counter‐
arguments in a non‐combative manner.
A – Action: Suggest specific actions that you want audience to take. Provide a
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deadline, if needed.
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Attention Summarize a problem.
AIDA –
variation on
indirect
approach
Interest Imagine how a solution will benefit them.
Desire
Highlight clear benefits.
Action
Suggest specific action.
A – Attention: Encourage audience to want to hear your message. Grab their
attention. (summarize a problem) – often you can use a story or even infuse humour.
I – Interest: Additional details that prompt audience to imagine how a solution will
benefit them. Keep their interest. Use facts, figures. Make sure you find credible
sources/expert opinion. And stress reader benefits.
D – Desire: Get audiences to embrace your idea, be clear how it will benefit them and
answer potential objections (minimize resistance).Prepare and present counter‐
arguments in a non‐combative manner.
A – Action: Suggest specific action you want audience to take. Provide deadline, if
needed.
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AIDA example
• [Attention] As mentioned recently, I am doing a report for my communication
class at KPU which is based on some of the …

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