CMNS 1140 UNSDG Final Project Submission

WHY ARE WETo raise awareness about the United Nations Sustainable Development
Goals (UNSDGs)
DOING THIS
ASSIGNMENT?

To demonstrate the findings from your research this past semester
To incorporate visual design principles to enhance the delivery of your
message
To apply and demonstrate the knowledge/skills from this course in
creating audience centric, persuasive, communication that is supported
with credible evidence
To gain experience with sharing your ideas to inspire and educate others
1.
Review the feedback that you received on Assignment 2 (Project Proposal)
and Assignment 3 (Project Update). You can and should use information
from those first two submissions in this assignment ( just ensure you
incorporate any feedback provided) .
2.
Develop a final submission that clearly contains the following elements* * :

Introduction:
o
Briefly orient your audience to what they can expect to
hear/ learn about in your submission. In a written submission
this may be in the form of an introductory paragraph. In a
presentation it will likely be in the form of an overview or
agenda slide.
o
Indicate who this final submission is intended for ( who is your
audience) . Remember to be as specific as possible.
Background & Relevance: Provide background on what the UNSDGs
are and which one your submission focuses on. Share why you are
personally invested in this SDG. Remember that the people your
submission is for will likely not already know anything about the
UNSDGs. Suggested elements to cover:
o What are the UNSDGs?
o Which one have you selected, and more specifically which
Target will you focus on?
o Why is it important to you?
CMNS 1140 – 2022-3 – A4 Overview
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o Why should they care about this Target? ( use facts/ research to
build a strong argument)
CMNS 1140 – 2022-3 – A4 Overview
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Inspiring Solutions
o What are THREE solutions that your specific audience can
implement to contribute towards achieving the identified
Target? In other words, what can they specifically do in their
own lives or their business to help work towards achieving the
UNSDG Target that you’ve identified? Why should they care?
Make these action- oriented so that people can easily figure out
how to take these steps.
o When writing this section, ensure that you do some research
that helps showcase/ prove that each of your suggested
solutions can actually make an impact/ difference.

Conclusion:
o Briefly summarize the key points you’ ve raised and reinforce
the importance of why people should take action immediately.
* * A minimum of FOUR different research sources should be referenced
throughout your submission and at minimum ONE graphic should be included
that adds strength to your argument(s). Ensure in- text citations are included for
your sources and graphic( s) * *
WHAT DO I
Pick ONE of the following formats for your final submission. Consult with
NEED TO
INCLUDE IN MY
FINAL
SUBMISSION?
Lindsay if you have an alternative idea:

Write a 2-3 page single-spaced report (not including title page, references,
appendices)

Create a 3 – 5 minute video ( with speaking notes/ captions)

Create a 3-5 minute slideshow presentation (with an audio-track or written
speaking notes – your ‘script’ as if you were presenting. Please include the
script in the notes field for each slide if possible) – maximum of 20 slides

Create a blog (website)
CMNS 1140 – 2022-3 – A4 Overview
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Submit the following; these may be separate documents or combined into
one:
1.
Cover page/title slide that is creatively formatted (capture my attention!)
and includes:
Assignment title
Your Name

Your KPU Student Number

Your KPU Email Address

Date of Submission
2.
Your submission file
3.
The Academic Honesty Declaration (see Moodle)
CMNS 1140 – 2022-3 – A4 Overview
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HOW WILL I BE
ASSESSED?
The maximum score that can be earned is 20 points, as follows*:
16 – 20 points [A]: All sections are included with adequate descriptions to
ensure the audience is clear and does not have any outstanding questions
or areas of confusion. All claims/ arguments have strong evidence to
support them through quotes/ paraphrases and in- text citations. Key
messages are clearly delivered in a logical and persuasive manner and are
tailored to your chosen audience. The layout/ design/ format/ editing
provide a professional image and increase the ability for the audience to
understand and identify important information. Images are incorporated
( e. g. photos/ charts) that effectively enhance and support the delivery of
key information. References to cited content are appropriately
incorporated throughout and draw upon the minimum number of required
sources. Proper APA citation has been used and a reference page/ slide is
included.
13.6 – 15.9 points [B]: All sections are included with mostly adequate
descriptions to ensure the audience is mostly clear and does not have any
significant outstanding questions or areas of confusion. Thoughts have
been largely well- developed. Key messages are largely delivered in a
logical and persuasive manner and tailored to your chosen audience. The
layout/ design/ format/ editing provide a somewhat professional image and
largely increase the ability for the audience to understand and identify
important information. Images are largely incorporated ( e. g.
photos/ charts) that effectively enhance and support the delivery of key
information. References to cited content are mostly appropriately
incorporated throughout and draw upon the minimum number of required
sources.
11.2 – 13.5 [C] : Most sections are included with brief descriptions that
leave elements unclear for the audience and leaves questions or
uncertainty. While included, key messages are not delivered in a logical
and persuasive manner. The layout/ design/ format/ editing provide a
somewhat professional image, though it does not necessarily increase the
ability for the audience to understand and identify important information.
Images are incorporated (e. g. photos/ charts) though they don’ t effectively
enhance and support the delivery of key information. References to cited
content are somewhat appropriately incorporated throughout and may
not draw upon the minimum number of required sources.
0– 11.2 points [D] : Avoid this. Aim to get at least a C on this assignment.
CMNS 1140 – 2022-3 – A4 Overview
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* The marking scheme is subject to change
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CMNS 1140 –
Intro to Professional
Communication
Module 4
1
How research
supports our
writing
Learning object: video will explore how research supports our writing
2
Writing & Research
Writing and Research
When we write for business or academic purposes we generally also need to do some
research.
Overall, research strengthens our writing and makes it more effective; it works to
convince people that what we’re writing is accurate and holds weight, or credibility.
The more that people trust what we’ve written, the more likely they are to believe it
and act upon what we’re suggesting or recommending.
3
Evidence
Evidence
Ultimately you are looking for evidence to support what you are saying and/or what
your argument is.
4
An example
COVID‐19 is a very deadly virus. People say that it’s like the flu, but in
reality COVID‐19 has killed more people than the flu this year.
Within approximately the last six months 315,496 COVID‐19 related deaths
have been reported worldwide, whereas between 290,000 – 650,000
people die annually from flu‐related causes. More specifically, in the US
alone, “89,564 people have died of COVID‐19” versus a suspected
maximum of 62,000 people from flu‐related illnesses during the same time
period (Maragakis, 2020).
Citation: Maragakis, L.L. (2020). John’s Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved from:
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions‐and‐diseases/coronavirus/coronavirus‐disease‐2019‐vs‐the‐flu
Let’s look at it further
An example of a statement that I want to write:
COVID‐19 is a very deadly virus. People say that it’s like the flu, but in reality COVID‐19
has killed more people than the flu.
This is the argument I want to make.
Most of you will likely agree with this statement based on what you’ve already been
hearing in the media. That said, while the statement is likely true, it’s hard to assess
just how valid it is. I don’t have any data, so it looks like just an opinion.
Let’s now take a look at another version of this statement:
Within approximately the last six months 315,496 COVID‐19 related deaths have been
reported worldwide, whereas between 290,000 – 650,000 people die annually from
flu‐related causes. More specifically, in the US alone, “89,564 people have died of
COVID‐19” versus a suspected maximum of 62,000 people from flu‐related illnesses
during the same time period (Maragakis, 2020).
Citation: Maragakis, L.L. (2020). John’s Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved from:
5
https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions‐and‐
diseases/coronavirus/coronavirus‐disease‐2019‐vs‐the‐flu
Hopefully you can begin to see that the second version, which is supported by data –
featuring actual numbers– is a stronger and more convincing version. The data that
I’ve included has been retrieved from the John’s Hopkins Medicine website – a
leading authority on public health issues and I’ve cited it.
You can also see that I’ve also included a direct quotation, which is indicated by the
quotation marks I’ve put around “89,564 people have died of COVID‐19”
Anytime you use exact wording, you need to use quotations ‐ these are not your
original words.
Both of these strategies help to reinforce the severity of the issue and to put it into
context as well.
This is the type of writing that I’m expecting in your assignments; I want to see
evidence through research and data that supports your own ideas that you want to
communicate.
We’ll talk more about this in our other videos in this module.
End video
5
How research
supports our
writing
6
The three
different
types of
research
sources
This video
7
What’s a source?
What’s a source?
When we do research there are different places we can go to in order to get what
we’re looking for. For example, if your supervisor at work comes to you and asks you
to write a brief report there are many ways to find information that will give you
some good insight and evidence as well – these places of information could be within
your organization, through any publicly available websites, or through restricted
sources like the KPU Library’s databases. Either way, we call each of these places –
sources ‐ to find information a source.
There are three different types of sources that we can use as well to get our
information.
8
Primary
source
• Research you carry out /
conduct
• Communication directly
with the source.
Primary sources
The first is a primary source.
Primary sources present information that is original and that does not have anyone
else’s edits, interpretation, or analysis placed over it. These sources have generally
conducted the most research on a given topic or subject.
They are generated by people who are directly involved in a given subject. They’re
original materials in which further research can be based off of.
9
Primary
sources
• Interviews
• Surveys
• Observations
• Experiments.
Examples
You may be watching an interview that someone conducted. Because you’re hearing
directly what the person being interviewed is saying – as though you’re in the room –
this is considered a primary source.
You may be reading online reviews that people have posted on a news website. Each
of those comments is also a primary source of information as you are seeing what
each person is directly typing or creating, without anyone editing what they’ve said.
You may be looking at survey data that was done. The data itself would be considered
a primary source of information because it’s a compilation of how people directly
responded to the information.
You may be looking at an online news article from a reputable news website. That is
also considered to be a primary source. The reporter is directly interviewing someone
and quoting them.
Or you may even come across someone’s Instagram feed and see a photo you’d like
to analyze. That photo is a primary source.
10
Secondary
source
• Provide interpretation,
analysis, evaluation, or
even summaries
• Compiled by someone
else.
• Not based on direct
observation of
experience
Secondary source
The second is what we call a secondary source. These generally require a bit less
direct research.
These sources provide interpretation, analysis, evaluation, or even summaries of
primary or other secondary sources of information.
They’re also generally not based on direct observation or experience.
11
Secondary
sources
• Scholarly journal
• Biography
• Magazine articles
Examples
You may come across a scholarly journal that summarizes some of the main research
that’s being done on a particular approach to cure Cancer. Because it is summarizing
several different types of research being done, this is a secondary source.
Or you may find a biography that someone has written. They’ve likely used many
primary and other secondary sources to craft the biography.
Or you come across a magazine article that describes the trend that is happening
right now with a presumed increase in businesses shifting to solar power. Again, this
article would generally have read or conducted a lot or primary research, reviewed
secondary sources, and pulled it all together in a bit of a summary.
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Tertiary
source
• Assemble/summarize
primary and secondary
sources.
Tertiary source
A third type is called a tertiary source. You may have never heard of this type of
source before, but you encounter it on a regular basis.
We come across tertiary sources when we find information that has been assembled
or summarized from a number of primary or secondary sources together. The
creators of tertiary sources are generally not directly involved in any research, other
than compiling existing sources of information.
The key here is that it’s an overallhighlevel summary, and there isn’t a lot of
interpretation included – which is more characteristic of a secondary source.
13
Tertiary
sources
• Textbooks
• Encyclopedias
• Wikipedia…
Tertiary source examples
Textbooks – often a summary of existing info that is out there. Generally speaking
they are not creating brand new ideas, they are collecting a number of ideas.
Encyclopedia’s / Wikipedia
We need to be a bit careful with tertiary sources like Wikipedia in particular because
sometimes the person who compiled the information may not have accurately
captured the original author’s intention.
For example, Wikipedia is an open platform that anyone can edit; regardless of how
informed or educated they are on a given topic. As a result, we do need to be
cautious about using tools like Wikipedia in our research.
TIP: My biggest tip is to try to avoid using tertiary sources directly in your writing – at
least for academic assignments. Instead, you can use the sources that are presented
on the page and go directly to those sources of information.
I will be posting a link to a video my colleague made on tertiary sources and
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Wikipedia specifically that I think you will find helpful.
14
The three
different
types of
research
sources
15
How do we
know when a
source is
reliable?
Supporting video:
I found a YouTube video that provides a great overview. The following slides in this
section are intended to be supplementary material.
Here is the youtube video – it is also in the M4 lesson slideshow
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_M1‐aMCJHFg&feature=youtu.be
16
Reliability
Reliability
It doesn’t matter how much research you do, if it’s from unreliable sources then your
audience will not respect your opinion or your data.
Reliable sources of information are those that are based in fact, and have strong,
reliable evidence and/or reputation.
17
EVALUATING SOURCES
18
Evaluating
sources
• C urrency
• R elevance
• Authority
• A ccuracy
• Purpose
https://guides.library.ucsc.edu/writing/evaluate
Evaluating Sources
We need to evaluate the information that we find, particularly based on the source
(due to bias and/or influence). When reviewing your source, ensure you look to make
sure it passes what we refer to as the CRAAP test…!
Source for this section : https://guides.library.ucsc.edu/writing/evaluate
19
Currency
• The timeliness of the information
• How recent is the information?
• Can you locate a date when the page(s) were
written/created/updated?
• Based in your topic, is it current enough?
• Tip: Are the links functional?
Currency
The timeliness of the information
How recent is the information?
Can you locate a date when the page(s) were written/created/updated?
Based in your topic, is it current enough?
Tip: Are the links functional?
20
Relevance
• Importance of the information
• Does it relate to the topic I’m researching?
• Is the content primarily fact, or opinion? Is
the information balanced, or biased?
• Tip: If you feel the source is trying to sell
something to you then reconsider how
relevant the content is.
Relevance
Importance of the information
Does it relate to the topic I’m researching?
Is the content primarily fact, or opinion? Is the information balanced, or biased?
Tip: If you feel the source is trying to sell something to you then reconsider how
relevant the content is.
21
Authority
• The source of the information
• Can you determine who the author/creator
is? is there a way to contact them?
• What are their credentials (education,
affiliation, experience, etc.)?
• Who is the publisher or sponsor of the site?
Are they reputable?
• Tip: Does the URL reveal anything about
the source: .org, .edu, .gov
Authority
The source of the information
Can you determine who the author/creator is? is there a way to contact them?
What are their credentials (education, affiliation, experience, etc.)?
Who is the publisher or sponsor of the site? Are they reputable?
Tip: Does the URL reveal anything about the source: .org, .edu, .gov
22
Accuracy
• Where does the information come from?
• Is the information balanced or biased?
• Does the author provide references for
quotations and data?
• Can you verify the information from another
reliable source?
• Tip: Do they sources that they use pass the
CRAAP test?
Accuracy
The reliability, truthfulness and correctness of the information
Is it accurate? Is it supported by evidence?
Is the information balanced or biased?
Was it peer‐reviewed?
Can you verify the information from another reliable source?
Are there spelling, grammar, or typographical errors?
Tip: “just because it’s trending, doesn’t mean it’s true!”
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Purpose
• Why was the content written and published?
• What is the author(s) trying to accomplish?
• Are there ads on the website that may
influence the content?
• Based on the writing style, who is the
intended audience?
• Tip: If the purpose isn’t clear, be skeptical
Purpose
The reason the information exists
What’s the intent of the website (to inform, to persuade, to sell you something, etc.)?
Are there ads on the website that may influence the content?
How do they relate to the topic being covered (e.g., an ad for ammunition next to an
article about firearms legislation)?
Is the author presenting fact, or opinion? Who might benefit from a reader believing
this website?
Based on the writing style, who is the intended audience?
Tip: If the purpose isn’t clear, be skeptical
Now let’s look at two examples:
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Some examples
• Example 1:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the‐
truth‐behind‐standing‐desks‐
2016092310264
• Example 2:
https://www.huzlers.com/breaking‐bill‐nye‐
science‐guy‐arrested‐manufacturing‐selling‐
illegal‐drugs/
Example 1: [Live demo]
Standing desks https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the‐truth‐behind‐standing‐
desks‐2016092310264
Currency (2.5 years old…)
Relevance: Directly address the topic we’re looking at
Authority: Harvard has a reputation
Accuracy: evidence is provided in link to another reputable site
Purpose: to inform/help (based on fact; no ads)
Example 2: [Live demo]
Bill Nye: https://www.huzlers.com/breaking‐bill‐nye‐science‐guy‐arrested‐
manufacturing‐selling‐illegal‐drugs/
Currency (No date!)
Relevance: It does discuss Bill Nye…
Authority: Huzlers is known as a satirical source
Accuracy: No evidence – although there is a quote from an “FBI agent” – Google
search doesn’t reveal confirmation. No links to reputable sources
Purpose: to entertain (lots of ads, too)
25
EVALUATING SOURCES
In conclusion
We sometimes have a tendency to believe anything that is published online, but the
unfortunate reality is that there is a lot of false or misleading information out there.
Some of it is intentional, while others are merely accidental. Either way, using the
CRAAP test should help you sniff out anything that you likely want to avoid believing.
26
FAKE NEWS
Fake news…
A large part of our challenge now as communicators is knowing what information we
can share, or incorporate into our research – a lot of this is because there is so much
fake news that we need to deal with.
A recent study by the Edelman Trust Barometer revealed that 73% of Canadians are
worried about Fake News in some capacity.
Source:
https://www.edelman.com/sites/g/files/aatuss191/files/2019‐
02/2019_Edelman_Trust_Barometer_Global_Report.pdf
QUESTION: So, why is there such a proliferation?
Why the prolifation?
people can now create content unburdened by the layers of editing and fact‐checking
that news organisations adhere to
content is aggregated into a single “news” feed – mixing updates from friends and
family with identical‐looking links to stories across the web
lower attention spans
27
fake news stories appeal to our emotions
proliferation of internet bots
Source: https://libguides.tru.ca/fakenews/falling
They key characteristics of fake news
factually inaccurate
optimized for sharing
meant to obscure or distort with emotions; preying on prejudice or bias
Source: https://libguides.tru.ca/fakenews/falling
Why should we care?
Two key reasons: Disinformation and Misinformation
QUESTION: What’s the difference?
DISinformation: is the deliberate creation and/or sharing of false information in order
to mislead.
MISinformation: is the act of sharing information without realizing it’s wrong.
How to spot fake news
S: Is it a credible source – check the web address (theguardian.com versus
thegardian.com)
Ask yourself if this is article coming from a credible or reputable source? Don’t
forget, your social networks are not media outlets—look for the original source and
learn who they are and what they do. Remember the CRAAP principle that we
discussed in a previous video.
P: Is the perspective biased? (look at the About Us section)
Look for outlets that report from various perspectives to ensure the credibility of a
piece. Is the article distorted or not telling the full story? Does it seem designed to
get people talking—could it be clickbait?
Always question if a source is hoping to inspire a desired outcome. And remember,
just because you don’t agree with a particular viewpoint does not make it biased.
O: Are others reporting on the same story?
Look to see if multiple, credible sources—such as established media outlets—are
reporting the same facts, and if they are, it’s more likely to be accurate.
If you google the subject or topic and can’t find anything else on it then chances are
it’s not legitimate.
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T: Is the story timely? (how recent is the information)?
Sometimes, stories use old information, facts, photos or videos to take advantage of a
timely occurrence such as a current event or announcement to bolster views.
Bonus:
Plus: Are there lots of ads?
Source: https://nmc‐mic.ca/spot‐fake‐news‐online/
27
How do we
know when a
source is
reliable?
28
What are
citations and
when do we
need them?
In this lesson we are going to explore what are citations and when do we need them.
As a university student, this skill is extremely important to learn. But before we get
ahead of ourselves…
My question to you is: What do we mean by citing your sources?
Providing credit to people or organizations who have originally developed the ideas.
These are not your original ideas. Essentially anytime you are using someone else’s
idea in your work, you need to cite it.
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Citing your
sources
• Honesty
• Attribution / Respect
• Clarity
Question: Why is it important that we cite our sources?
Honesty – this is not our idea
Attribution / Respect –want to respect the original author who came up with the idea
Clarity – make it clear which ideas are your own and which came from other people.
If you come up with great sources, your audience will trust you more and give you
credibility that this person did the research and has strong evidence to back up their
argument. Their ideas are supported by others. Only going to give you more respect
and trust from others in your academic and professional careers.
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Two core
aspects
• In‐text citations
• References /
Works Cited
Two core aspects of citations
In‐text citations – using quotations, verbatim someone else’s words
References / Works Cited listing (end of paper)
Let’s take a look at when we do these.
When do we do it?
In‐text citation is when we are writing a paragraph and you include a quote using
parenthesis, you will then include a bracket of where the source came from.
End of document, references or works cited, you add more details of where the
quote came from; this is what we mean.
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• Quote directly
• Paraphrase a statement
• Borrow an idea
When do we
cite?
When do we need to cite our sources?
Question: when do we need to cite something?
In North America,
Direct quote ‐ you need to cite it
Paraphrase a statement ‐ you need to cite it
Borrow an idea ‐you need to cite it
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Direct quote
We are a value‐driven company with a passion for life
at home. Every product we create is our idea for
making home a better place. At the IKEA Group, we
have 355 stores in 29 countries.
IKEA Direct quote
Example: You’re writing an introduction about IKEA
You see this paragraph on the website and you want to put this into your paper.
We are a value‐driven company with a passion for life at home. Every product we
create is our idea for making home a better place. At the IKEA Group, we have 355
stores in 29 countries.
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Direct quote
Original: We are a value‐driven company with a passion for life at
home. Every product we create is our idea for making home a better
place. At the IKEA Group, we have 355 stores in 29 countries.
Revised: IKEA is a value‐driven company with a passion for life at home.
Revised version:
IKEA is a value‐driven company with a passion for life at home.
I like this sentence, and I can’t say it any better.
This is a direct quote. I didn’t write this.
QUESTION: Do I need to cite this? If yes, what do I need to do?
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Direct quote
Original: We are a value‐driven company with a passion for life at home.
Every product we create is our idea for making home a better place. At the
IKEA Group, we have 355 stores in 29 countries.
Revised: IKEA is “a value‐driven company with a passion for life at home.”
(“IKEA Company Information,” n.d.)
Reference list:
IKEA Company Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from
https://www.ikea.com/ca/en/this‐is‐ikea/company‐information‐
pubf1695191.
Yes!
We need to cite because we are directly copying and pasting another person’s words,
without making any significant changes. It’s not my own words
So I start the sentence with IKEA is (these are my words) and then I used quotes
around everything that are not my words, end quote. At the end, I put in brackets
what the source is.
IKEA is “a value‐driven company with a passion for life at home” (“IKEA Company
Information,” n.d.)
I didn’t have a date, so I put n.d. – no date.
Still unsure? If you go to KPU library website and type in APA and it will give you a
great resource on how to format APA. I’ve also included a link on our Moodle site
home page.
At the end of the document, I will include the full listing entry under my references
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list with more details. Shorter in text, end of document, full.
Reference list:
IKEA Company Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ikea.com/ca/en/this‐
is‐ikea/company‐information‐pubf1695191.
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Paraphrase a statement
Original: We are a value‐driven company with a passion for life at
home. Every product we create is our idea for making home a better
place. At the IKEA Group, we have 355 stores in 29 countries.
Revised:
1) IKEA is a price‐sensitive organization with a zest for living at the
household.
2) IKEA is a company that places significant focus on being value‐driven.
Let’s look at a paraphrase.
First Example 1: IKEA is a price‐sensitive organization with a zest for living in the
household.
Example 2: IKEA is a company that places significant focus on being value‐driven.
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Paraphrase a statement
Original: We are a value‐driven company with a passion for life at home.
Every product we create is our idea for making home a better place. At the
IKEA Group, we have 355 stores in 29 countries.
Revised:
1) IKEA is a price‐sensitive organization with a zest for living at the
household. (“IKEA Company Information,” n.d.).
2) IKEA is a company that places significant focus on being value‐driven.
(“IKEA Company Information,” n.d.).
IKEA Company Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ikea.com/ca/en/this‐is‐ikea/company‐
information‐pubf1695191.
The second one
Let’s compare the two examples.
In the first one, you’ll see that I’ve simply kept the exact same order and sentence
structure and just replaced each word with a synonym, or a similar word. That is an
example of plagiarism and is not acceptable. I’ve highlighted all of the similar words
in corresponding colours.
If this was an assignment, and you took the exact same sentence structure and just
replaced the words. This is plagiarism.
In the second version, though, you’ll notice that while I’ve used two of the same
words for the original statement, they are placed differently and more than 80% of
my revised text is brand new – something that I wrote myself. THIS is what you want
to achieve.
These are my words, but not my idea. I don’t just know this, so I have to use note I
am paraphrasing in my citation.
37
Tip: The trick I use to paraphrase is to simply look at a sentence once or twice to
ensure I understand the main idea, and then I look away and try to write it in my own
words.
37
Borrow an idea
Original: We are a value‐driven company with a passion for life at
home. Every product we create is our idea for making home a better
place. At the IKEA Group, we have 355 stores in 29 countries.
Revised:
IKEA is a global company that is in nearly 30 countries around the world
Borrow an idea
IKEA is a global company that is in nearly 30 countries around the world
38
Borrow an idea
Original: We are a value‐driven company with a passion for life at home. Every
product we create is our idea for making home a better place. At the IKEA Group,
we have 355 stores in 29 countries.
Revised:
IKEA is a global company that is in nearly 30 countries around the world (“IKEA
Company Information,” n.d.).
Reference:
IKEA Company Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from
https://www.ikea.com/ca/en/this‐is‐ikea/company‐information‐pubf1695191.
I do need to cite
Because I didn’t just wake up one morning and knew that IKEA was based in nearly 30
locations – it was information I needed to look up – I do need to cite it, because it’s
not what we would call common knowledge.
As a result I include the citation at the end of the statement, and also a listing in the
works cited section of my report. I need to show this is factual information I found
somewhere and this is not my knowledge.
(“IKEA Company Information,” n.d.).
Reference:
IKEA Company Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ikea.com/ca/en/this‐
is‐ikea/company‐information‐pubf1695191
39
What are
citations and
when do we
need them?
EXAMPLE VIDEO:

This is a great supplementary video to help reinforce the best way to paraphrase.
40
“The quote
sandwich”
This lesson is going to review how to appropriately insert a quote into a sentence
using a method I like to call the quote sandwich.
41
First off, why use quotes?
Quotes add value and evidence to your writing – they help support your argument by
adding credibility, perspective, and in some cases even examples.
As a writer, your role is to essentially pull together pieces of information that you can
then present in a logical way to your reader – and most importantly in a way that
convinces your reader that what you’re writing is credible, relevant, and accurate.
42
A simple approach:
The Quote Sandwich
 Lead in sentence
 Quote
 In‐text citation
 Reasoning
Adapted from: http://teacheroffduty.com/your‐secret‐weapon‐to‐teaching‐textual‐evidence/
A relatively simple recipe/approach I use: The Quote Sandwich
Helps you better understand how to incorporate a quote into your writing. Think of
it like 4 ingredients we will go into detail.
Lead in sentence
Quote
In‐text citation
Reasoning
43
Lead in sentence
“The monkeypox outbreak that has been reported in 16 countries
and several regions of the world can still be contained and the
overall risk of transmission is low”
According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the monkeypox
outbreak that has been reported in 16 countries and several
regions of the world can still be contained and the overall risk of
transmission is low”.
First ingredient – the lead in sentence.
Lead in – Example 1
Let’s look at this example without a lead‐in: “The monkeypox outbreak that has been
reported in 16 countries and several regions of the world can still be contained and
the overall risk of transmission is low”
QUESTION: How effective is this as a quote?
No attribution
No sense of how relevant/timely
No context
Let’s look at Example with lead ‐in:
According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the monkeypox outbreak that has
been reported in 16 countries and several regions of the world can still be contained
and the overall risk of transmission is low”.
It’s telling the reader where this quote is coming from. United Nations Health Agency.
44
QUESTION: What have I done differently here?
QUESTION: Is this more or less effective than the first example?
> Notice that I’ve incorporated the quote as part of a sentence, and it’s not just
hanging there on it’s own.
> it provides some context
> it signals the quote is coming
44
Quote
My impression is that the monkeypox outbreak is not very serious
as it can be contained and the risk of spreading it is low.
According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the
monkeypox outbreak that has been reported in 16 countries
and several regions of the world can still be contained and the
overall risk of transmission is low”.
2nd ingredient: the Quote
This is actually the very first step of a process – you need to identify your quote. Think
of it as you are doing your research and reading articles you may come across a line
that really speaks to the point you are trying to make.
This can be a direct word, phrase, or a sentence from another source – it’s not your
own writing or idea.
I could very well write: My impression is that the monkeypox outbreak is not very
serious as it can be contained and the risk of spreading it is low.
However, it reads much stronger if I use a direct quote from a known source:
According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the monkeypox outbreak that has
been reported in 16 countries and several regions of the world can still be contained
and the overall risk of transmission is low”.
Much stronger if I position as the quote.
45
The quote is also directly related to what comes before it.
45
In‐text citation
According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the
monkeypox outbreak that has been reported in 16 countries
and several regions of the world can still be contained and the
overall risk of transmission is low” (UN News, 2022, para. 1).
3rd ingredient: In‐Text Citation
Another key aspect that we always need to include is the in‐text citation whenever
you are using someone else’s idea or words‐ you need to say where it came from.
Essentially it follows your quote in brackets:
According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the monkeypox outbreak that has
been reported in 16 countries and several regions of the world can still be contained
and the overall risk of transmission is low”. United Nations News, 2022, para. 1)
NOTE: Place citations after the quotation mark and before the period.
The citation belongs to the quote. Always put the period after the citation.
The value adding the citation helps the reader know where is it coming from, how
recent is it?
How recent is it? 15 days ago? This year.
Where is it located? If someone is looking for the idea they can find it quickly.
46
QUESTIONS:
What value does adding the in‐text citation provide to your reader? – gives it validity,
not a biased opinion but from a reputable source.
What value does it provide to you as the writer? – strengthens the argument or point
you are trying to make
What value does it provide to the original creator/author? – gives them recognition
46
Reasoning
According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the
monkeypox outbreak that has been reported in 16 countries
and several regions of the world can still be contained and the
overall risk of transmission is low” (UN News, 2022, para. 1)
therefore the majority of the population should not be overly
concerned.
Final ingredient: Reasoning
When you add a quote you also need to help your reader understand what the
ultimate point is that you’re trying to make.
According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the monkeypox outbreak that has
been reported in 16 countries and several regions of the world can still be contained
and the overall risk of transmission is low”
QUESTION: What is the main point that I’m trying to make here?
Revised version:
According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the monkeypox outbreak that has
been reported in 16 countries and several regions of the world can still be contained
and the overall risk of transmission is low” ((UN News, 2022, para. 1) therefore the
majority of the population should not be overly concerned.
Answers the so what, the main point.
47
This ultimately helps to create a complete thought and to move your reader from
your quote to your own point.
47
A simple approach:
The Quote Sandwich
Lead in sentence
 Provides context
 Signals the quote is coming
Quote
 Directly relevant to the point
before it
In‐text citation
 Immediately following the quote
Reasoning
 Reinforces your point to the
reader
Adapted from: http://teacheroffduty.com/your‐secret‐weapon‐to‐teaching‐textual‐evidence/
Overview of The Sandwich Overview
Lead in sentence – signals it’s coming
Provides context
Signals the quote is coming
Quote
~1 sentence
Directly relevant to the point before it.
In‐text citation
Immediately after the quote you have your reasoning.
Format: Some text (Author’s last name, Year).
Reasoning
Makes connection to significance for the reader
Moves reader from quote to your own point
Source: http://teacheroffduty.com/your‐secret‐weapon‐to‐teaching‐textual‐
evidence/
48

Image source: http://www cc com/shows/the colbert report
An Example – Colbert Report
If you’re interested in seeing a somewhat comical way that someone has added
quotes to strengthen their points, then you can watch the video I’ve provided the link
for on our Moodle site titled: The Colbert Report. Try to see how Colbert uses the
sandwich approach.

49
A paraphrase
One additional item I want to cover is the paraphrase.
Essentially the paraphrase is taking someone else’s idea and re‐writing it using your
own words.
The best way to paraphrase something is to look at it once or twice, and then to look
away and try and re‐write it using your own words without looking at the original.
50
Original: Tthe monkeypox outbreak that has been reported in
16 countries and several regions of the world can still be
contained and the overall risk of transmission is low”.
Paraphrase: According to the UN Health Agency, there is little
cause to be concerned about the spread of the monkey pox
outbreak around the world.
A paraphrase Example
For example:
Here’s the Original: According to the United Nations Health Agency, “the monkeypox
outbreak that has been reported in 16 countries and several regions of the world can
still be contained and the overall risk of transmission is low”
Here’s the Paraphrase: According to the UN Health Agency, there is little cause to be
concerned about the spread of the monkey pox outbreak around the world.
If you compare the two, they look very different. The main thing with a paraphrase
you need to put it into your words and not the words of the author.
QUESTION: Do I need a citation when paraphrasing?
Where?
51
Paraphrase: According to the UN Health Agency, there is little
cause to be concerned about the spread of the monkey pox
outbreak around the world (UN News, 2022)
Everytime you paraphrase you need to use a citation. I only need to put a page
number or paragraph if I use a direct quote.
According to the UN Health Agency, there is little cause to be concerned about the
spread of the monkey pox outbreak around the world
52
A simple approach:
The Quote Sandwich
Lead in sentence
 Provides context
 Signals the quote is coming
Quote
 Directly relevant to the point
before it
In‐text citation
 Immediately following the quote
Reasoning
 Reinforces your point to the
reader
Adapted from: http://teacheroffduty.com/your‐secret‐weapon‐to‐teaching‐textual‐evidence/
Sandwich Approach Overview
So, remember, when inserting quotes into your writing, try to follow the sandwich
approach.
If you want to learn more, I’ve added another video of how to paraphrase.
53
The quote
sandwich
54
CMNS 1140 –
Intro to Professional
Communication
Module 5
If you are reading these notes from Week 5, please remember that you need to also
reference the Lessons in Moodle (the slide shows) as there is more content (external
videos, readings, activities) that will be assessed on a midterm.
The following slides are only from video content that was created by me.
1
What do we mean
by audience?
2
The audience
One of the most important aspects of being an effective communicator is knowing
WHO we are supposed to be communicating to. This has a big impact upon what
message we choose to communicate and how we choose to send that message (or
which channel we use).
3
Noise
Context
Sender
(source)
Context
Channel
(medium)
Receiver
(recipient)
Feedback
The Communication Process
If we go back to our Communication Process model that was introduced in Module 1,
the receiver in this model is what we refer to as the audience; the person or group of
people who your message is intended for.
It’s possible as well that we have more than one audience or receiver for our
message as well.
Let’s look at an example.
4
Example: Audiences
Jenny is a shift supervisor at McDonalds. Due to COVID‐19, she needs to adjust the
shifts for her team members so that they are staggered more than usual as they can’t
have as many employees in the restaurant at the same time anymore.
Jenny needs to send a Memo to her team – remember, Memo’s are intended to serve
as detailed internal communications about a specific topic.
While the Memo is intended to go directly to her team members, she also copies her
boss, the Store Manager, so that her Manager is aware of the details that were
communicated to employees.
In this case we have two different intended audiences: the first is the team members
(or employees) who are directly impacted, and the Manager who just needs to be
made aware that a communication has gone out.
This is our main audience.
5
Two main audiences
Typically there are one or two main audiences for whom we intend to design our
messages:
The first: A primary audience
A secondary audience
Let’s look at each of these in a bit more detail.
Also a video that I’ve listed that provide more detail into this topic.
6
Who is the primary
audience?
• Intended (direct)
recipient
• Decision‐maker
• Time‐sensitive
Primary (target) audience
The primary audience is that person or group of people who are intended to be the
direct recipients of the information. They are generally the individuals directly
impacted or who need to make decisions based on the content of your message.
Generally speaking, they will need to review the information in a relatively timely
manner (sooner than later).
Again, in the example I presented earlier, the team members who are impacted by
the shift changes they are the primary audience.
7
Who is the secondary
audience?
• Those impacted
• Those interested
• Those influencers
Slide: Secondary audience
The secondary audience is the person or group of people who are also impacted by
the communication, but likely not directly. They, however, are probably interested in
the information and they may have even influenced the original message. For
example, perhaps you were working with your supervisor to draft the message and
then you decide to copy your supervisor on the message.
They are the secondary audience.
If we go back to our example, the Store Manager is the secondary audience as she is
just being informed about the communication going out.
8
Example
When COVID‐19 hit, all Deans at KPU sent out
messages to their instructors about how we were
needing to move online immediately during the
middle of March. The message was sent to all
instructors. Copied on the message were other
members of the Dean’s office team as well as the
Vice President Academic.
Slide: Example:
When COVID‐19 hit, all Deans at KPU sent out messages to their instructors about
how we were needing to move online immediately during the middle of March. The
message was sent to all instructors and copied on the message were other members
of the Dean’s office team as well as the Vice President Academic.
Two audiences in this case:
Primary audience: instructors
Secondary audience: Dean’s office staff, VP Academic
9
What do we mean
by audience?
Objective:
Identify how knowing our audience can influence our approach to designing a
message
For a reminder of the types of things we need to consider about our audience before
we create a message, review the video titled “Conduct an Audience Analysis” in
Module 1.
10
How audiences
influence our
approach
This video discusses how audiences influence our approach. Remember in the pre‐
writing stage, it’s really impt to reflect on who the audience is that you are
communicating to. This is a key step in any type of communication as it will dictate
your approach, your tone, the language you use and more. If you want a refresher,
check out the video titled “How to conduct an audience analysis” which was covered
in Module 1.
11
Adapting to the audience
Adapting to the audience
Once we have an idea of who we’re communicating with, this then influences how
we create our message. As was mentioned in Module 1, as communicators we need
to adapt and shift our approach – much like a chameleon adjusts its skin tone based
on its environment.
Here are some of the key ways that I find knowing my audience will help me figure
out how to create an effective message:
12
What’s important to them?
What’s important to them?
First, when you know what’s really important for your audience to know then you’ll
want to make sure that your message clearly focuses on and communicates that
information.
For example, if KPU needs to communicate to students that all parking will be closed
for convocation ceremonies next week, they should focus on placing this information
very early in the message so you know it’s relevant.
If, for example, they begin with a detailed background about the graduation
ceremonies and referenced information about the time of the ceremonies, where to
buy flowers, where grads should pick up their cap and gowns, etc., you will likely
begin to read it and say “well, I am not graduating this semester and this doesn’t
apply to me” – delete.
Instead, if they begin by stating that all University parking lots will be closed for
convocation, and then they follow up with more detailed information about the
classes that will be impacted, where to go for alternative parking, etc. then they’ve at
13
least presented the most important information first and you know how relevant it is
to you (especially if you drive to campus).
13
What type of
language might I
use?
What type of language might I use?
We’ve already discussed formal and informal tone. This is where it becomes a factor
for us to consider.
Not only do we want to consider the tone; we also want to think about the level of
education and understanding that our audience will have.
For example, if I’m designing a message about why people should buy the latest
iPhone, I will likely design that message in a different way if I were communicating
with adults versus children. With adults I can use more mature language and perhaps
provide details about the retina XDR display, ceramic shield front, cinematic modes,
and haptic touch features whereas with children I will need to use simpler words and
pictures and to make it easy and fun to understand the main ideas.
14
Will they care?
Why will they care?
One of the main questions we should ask ourselves when preparing our messages is
“why should our audience care about this message?” or “What impact will this have
on my audience?”
When advising my students on how to write an effective cover letter and resume for
their job search, I will emphasize this point and encourage students to put
themselves in the role of the employer.
Rather than writing an essay on every job you’ve had since high school or every
course you have taken at KPU, think about what is the most relevant information to
include for that particular job. Why should the person reading your resume care? It’s
not about you but what value are you going to bring to that specific employer if they
are hire you.
For example, while it is a nice thing you were given a scholarship in Grade 10 for
perfect attendance, or played soccer for 5 years, unless you can connect this back to
the job or the employer, it has little impact. You want to be specific in highlighting
15
with examples how you are reliable and committed; or, how playing team sports has
developed your leadership, communication, and work ethic specifically and how this
will add value to the organization you are applying to.
The key to remember here is to take the time to understand who your audience is
which will determine the approach you take in your communications.
15
How audiences
influence our
approach
16
What is a request
message?
17
The SMART approach
• Define the situation
• Decide on the main message
• Identify the audience
• Define the response that we want
• Choose our tool/medium/channel(s)
SMART
In Module 2 we reviewed the SMART approach to designing your message (it was
within the section on pre‐writing). Again, SMART is an acronym, with S representing
the Situation. And within the situation there are two main aspects – the purpose and
the scope.
18
What is my purpose?
Apologizing
Explaining
Proposing
Authorization (payment)
Following up
Recommending
Claiming a problem
Forecasting
Reviewing
Conveying goodwill
Gaining approval
Requesting
Defining
Informing
Summarizing
Describing
Inquiring
Evaluating
Presenting
What is my purpose?
When we look at the purpose, it could be one of a multitude of reasons that you wish
to communicate a message. It could be to persuade someone to do something, to
inform them about something, or perhaps even to describe something they should be
aware of. However, two of the most common purposes we have in business
communication is to request something or to respond to another person’s message.
That’s the focus of this section.
Request and Response messages.
19
Requests
Requests
A request is issued when you approach someone else (or a group of others) to have
them provide you with something – it could be to give you information, to complete a
task, to purchase a product, or to even provide you with their time (like requesting a
meeting).
QUESTION: What are some examples of requests that you may encounter on a daily
basis? [e.g. course request by me to complete assignments – or student requests for
clarification – or manager asks you for availability – or parents want you to check in]
QUESTION: Now what are some common components that you would expect to see
if someone is requesting information of you?
Let’s look at some of them now.
20
Key components of request messages
• Accurate and descriptive subject
• Clear call to action
• Explanation / supporting details
• Procedure to fulfill request
Key components of request messages: Overview
Accurate and descriptive subject line
Clear call to action in body
Explanation / supporting details
Procedure to fulfill request
21
Accurate and descriptive subject
• Identifies topic/subject
• Identifies action (or not)
• Communicates urgency/timeliness
Today’s experience
Feedback requested by Friday: Oct 29 class
Accurate and descriptive subject
For a reminder about how to write really effective subject lines, have a look at the
reading in Module 3 titled “How to write an email subject line”
In general, though, a good subject line:
Identifies topic/subject
Identifies action (or not) [info, respond, file]
Communicates urgency/timeliness
Look at these two examples of two subject lines:
Today’s experience
Feedback requested by Friday: Oct 29 CMNS 1140‐A18 class
Which one do you feel is most effective? I would say the second as it lets you know
exactly what is needed. The first one is very vague and you don’t know if someone is
intending to tell you what they thought your experience was like today, or if they’re
asking you for something.
22
Accurate and descriptive subject
• Identifies topic/subject
• Identifies action (or not)
• Communicates urgency/timeliness
Meeting weds
Can you meet with Lindsay this weds re. scheduling?
Example 2
Let’s look at these two examples:
Meeting weds
Your availability for a meeting with Lindsay this weds re. scheduling
If we just read the first example we’re not sure what this message is about. Are we
talking about a meeting that happened last Wednesday or one that is happening next
Wednesday? Are you going to tell me something I need to know, or do you need
something from me?
Again, in the second one you’ll see it’s a lot more detailed and the reader will have an
idea before they even open the message about the subject and also what is needed.
23
Clear call to action
• Be specific
• Save time
Clear call to action ‐ Direct approach
When writing a request message make sure that you have a clear call to action; in
other words, that what you are looking for from the other person is very clear. Do you
need a response, do you need their input, do you require they provide you with a
document?
Being clear about this will save time from having you go back and forth. If you’re
unclear in your first message, then the person will likely write back with either the
wrong or incomplete information, or they may write back just asking you to clarify –
either way, it creates more work for everyone.
Let’s look at a few examples of clear calls to action.
24
Name that request…
Please provide your feedback
on your experience during
today’s CMNS1140 class.
Example 1: Name that request
“Please provide your feedback on your experience during today’s CMNS1140‐A18
class.”
What type of response – or action – is each of these senders requesting of their
recipient?
[feedback/comments]
25
Name that request…
As of February 1, 2020 all
employees are required to
record their hours worked in
our new online scheduling
platform, TimeSaver.
Example 2: Name that request 2
“As of Feb 1, 2020, all employees are required to record their hours worked in our
new online scheduling platform, TimeSaver.”
What is the request?
[Change in behaviour/process] ‐ want us to use the timesaver system
26
Name that request…
Lindsay has requested that a
meeting be booked with you
to discuss your schedule next
week. Are you available to
meet this Wednesday at 3pm
in her office?
Name that request 3
Example 3: “Lindsay has requested that a meeting be booked with you to discuss your
schedule next week. Are you available to meet this Wednesday at 3pm in her office?”
What is the request?
[Meeting/calendar request]
Request messages. Be very clear of what you want the receiver to do
27
Explanation
and supporting
details
• Provides sufficient background
• Reinforces rationale
• Great to use lists
Explanation and supporting details
Ensure that when you’re writing your request messages that you:
Provide sufficient background – if you feel the readers will need to know some
background information about the project or initiative then make sure you include it.
Reinforce rationale – help describe why you are placing the request. Is it because you
are working on a schedule that is due by Friday, or because you need some key
information to move forward with a project you’re working on?
Use lists – if you have multiple items that you’re requesting from someone then I
encourage you to put the items into a list format. We’ll have a video focused on this
later in this module.
Let’s look an example now of how we can showcase our explanation in a clear way.
28
TimeSaver example:
TimeSaver is our new online system to record work hours for all
employees. There are many benefits, including:
• Increased efficiency of data entry so we can process your pay cheques
faster
• Ability for you to view your own record of hours worked for reference
purposes
• A new scheduling tool that will help management identify potential
gaps in advance to increase advanced notice for any scheduling
changes.
TimeSaver example:
TimeSaver is our new online system to record work hours for all employees. There are
many benefits, including:
Increased efficiency of data entry so we can process your pay cheques faster
Ability for you to view your own record of hours worked for reference purposes
A new scheduling tool that will help management identify potential gaps in advance
to increase advanced notice for any scheduling changes.
I want them to do something differently and provided rationale or explanation.
29
Procedure to
fulfill request
Be clear with the
intended response and
mechanism or next steps
Procedure to fulfill request
Finally, we want to ensure that the person or people we’re communicating with
understand how we want them to respond to our request. Be clear with the intended
response and mechanism or next steps.
Again, let’s look at an example.
30
Feedback
example
Please respond to the following questions –
all are optional so you are welcome to
respond only to those in which you feel are
most applicable. Please share your feedback
by simply replying to this email before Friday,
October 9:
• Which topic was your favourite that we
covered in class?
• Was anything unclear during the class?
• How do you feel the class could have been
improved?
• Is there anything we covered that you
would like us to review during our next
class?
Feedback example:
Please respond to the following questions – all are optional so you are welcome to
respond only to those in which you feel are most applicable. Please share your
feedback by simply replying to this email before Friday, October 9:
Which topic was your favourite that we covered in class?
Was anything unclear during the class?
How do you feel the class could have been improved?
Is there anything we covered that you would like us to review during our next class?
Again, here I’ve been very specific when I want people to response.
31
Key components of request messages
• Accurate and descriptive subject
• Clear call to action in body – Direct approach
• Explanation / supporting details
• Procedure to fulfill request
Slide: Key components of request messages [REVIEW]
Accurate and descriptive subject
Clear call to action in body – Direct approach
Explanation / supporting details
Procedure to fulfill request
32
What is a request
message?
33
What is a response
message?
34
Response messages: Overview
• Timeliness
• Medium requested
• Organized by request(s)
Response messages
The previous video that was introduced described request messages, or when we
send a message to someone asking for something in return.
Now we’re going to describe the other side of this situation; when we are the ones
who need to respond to someone else’s request.
There are three key aspects that we want to be thinking about before we respond to
someone’s message:
Timeliness
Medium requested
Organized by request(s)
Let’s discuss each of these in more detail.
35
Timeliness
• Feedback requested by Friday:
Oct 9 CMNS 1140 class
• New process starting Nov 14:
recording work hours online
• Your availability for a meeting
with Lindsay this weds re.
scheduling
Timeliness
For each of these examples, when do you think you’d ultimately need to read or
respond to the message?
Feedback requested by Friday: Oct. 9 CMNS 1140‐S18 class [Before Friday, Oct. 9]
New process starting Nov 14: recording work hours online [Before Nov 14]
Your availability for a meeting with Lindsay this weds re. scheduling [respond Asap,
but certainly before Weds]
If we receive a message that has specified a timeframe in the subject line or body of
the message then we should try to respond before the specified deadline. I often
organize my emails this way. If someone gives me a deadline of one week to respond
to them, and another person gives me one day, then I’m generally going to respond
first to the person who has only give me one day to provide a response.
36
Medium requested
Medium requested
We also want to be thinking about what tool we should use to respond to someone’s
request.
QUESTION: In this example, what tool do you think we should use to respond?
37
Medium requested > Feedback example
Please respond to the following questions – all are optional so you are
welcome to respond only to those in which you feel are most applicable.
Please share your feedback by simply replying to this email before
Friday, October 5:
• Which topic was your favourite that we covered in class?
• Was anything unclear during the class?
• How do you feel the class could have been improved?
• Is there anything we covered that you would like us to review during
our next class?
Medium requested: Feedback example
Via email, as it’s what’s requested.
Now, HOW should we format/compose our response?
38
Medium requested > Feedback example
Please respond to the following questions – all are optional so you are
welcome to respond only to those in which you feel are most applicable.
Please share your feedback by simply replying to this email before
Friday, October 5:
• Which topic was your favourite that we covered in class?
• Was anything unclear during the class?
• How do you feel the class could have been improved?
• Is there anything we covered that you would like us to review during
our next class?
Medium requested: Feedback example [REVEALED]
By email.
What you don’t want to do: get up from your desk to go and tell them verbally. There
is a good chance they asked for an email so they have it recorded. You want to
respect their wishes.
39
Medium requested > Feedback example
• Which topic was your favourite that we covered in class?
• LW: I really enjoyed the game that we played as it helped reinforce the
most effective tools to choose and in a very fun and engaging way.
• Was anything unclear during the class?
• LW: No, everything was very clear. Thank you.
• How do you feel the class could have been improved?
• LW: Give away more gift cards!
• Is there anything we covered that you would like us to review during our
next class?
• LW: It would be valuable to review Assignment 1 objectives again to ensure
we are all clear on expectations.
Organized by request
If someone provides you with multiple requests in a single message then I
recommend you try to respond to each directly beneath the original request. This
helps to keep the information organized and to ensure that you’ve also answered
every request that was made of you.
Feedback requested example – broken down by question
Instead of responding with one big paragraph (difficult to figure out the individual
answers), I broke it down, added my initials. Sometimes I will use colour. This makes it
very clear.
Which topic was your favourite that we covered in class?
LW: I really enjoyed the game that we played as it helped reinforce the most effective
tools to choose and in a very fun and engaging way.
Was anything unclear during the class?
LW: No, everything was very clear. Thank you.
40
How do you feel the class could have been improved?
LW: Give away more gift cards!
Is there anything we covered that you would like us to review during our next
class?
LW: It would be valuable to review Assignment 1 objectives again to ensure we are all
clear on expectations.
40
What is a response
message?
41
What is a goodwill
message?
42
You may have never heard of a goodwill message before, but I guarantee you’ve
receive and sent them many times – possibly even today!
These are messages that convey well wishes (thank you, congratulations, sympathy,
etc.) that are not directly or overtly tied to business outcomes. They are focused on
relationship building.
43
Goodwill messages
• Personal
• Timely /Prompt
• Short, specific, and
sincere
Slide: Goodwill expectations
Goodwill messages generally have three specific qualities that make them the most
effective:
Personal [addressed to an individual not just a general greeting]
Timely /Prompt – they’re sent on time. For example, if your friend has a birthday you
want to try to wish them well on their actual birthday or maybe a day before or after.
It would be weird to send the a ‘happy birthday’ greeting two months after their
birthday.
Short, specific, and sincere ‐ these messages are generally really short, focused on a
specific attribute, and come across as being very sincere.
Let’s look at an example.
44
Goodwill messages
Congratulations! You are
employee of the month
and you get a $100 gift
card! Great job!!
Example 1:
Congratulations! You are employee of the month and you get a $100 gift card! Great
job!!
This comes across as a generally good message – and a nice one to get! – though it
doesn’t really follow our three principles of a Goodwill message (personal, timely,
short, specific and sincere)
Let’s compare this one to another version.
45
Congratulations, Leo!
As a result of your extra effort,
excellent sales record and high praise
from your colleagues, you have been
selected employee of the month.
In recognition, you have earned a
plaque and a $100 Visa Gift Card
when you are officially recognized
during Monday’s staff meeting.
Thank you so much for all of your
wonderful efforts, Leo, and
congratulations!
Example 2:
Congratulations, Leo! As a result of your extra effort, excellent sales record and high
praise from your colleagues, you have been selected employee of the month. In
recognition, you have earned a plaque and a $100 Visa Gift Card when you are
officially recognized during Monday’s staff meeting.
Thank you so much for all of your wonderful efforts, Leo, and congratulations!
You’ll see in this second version that it’s personal – the recipients name is included.
They’ve also provided very specific information as to why Leo received this award,
which helps make it more sincere, and they’ve indicated how the recognition will be
promoted to others as well.
46
What is a goodwill
message?
47
CMNS 1140 –
Introduction to
Professional Communication
Module 6
1
What is a bad
news message?
2
Bad news messages
Bad news messages
This lesson is going to discuss bad news messages, and what is a bad news message?
What do we mean by this? What are some insrances of when we will have to deliver
bad news in the workplace.
Bad news is generally something that we need to deliver that is not expected or going
to be appreciated by the person or people who are receiving the information.
3
You are the manager of an outdoor clothing
store. A customer emails you to complain
that she was not allowed to return a jacket.
Unfortunately, the customer’s jacket had
been torn up by her dog. Your refund policy
does not cover this type of damage. You
must tell the customer that you can’t refund
her money, while still maintaining her
business.
Example 1
You are the manager of an outdoor clothing store. A customer emails you to complain
that she was not allowed to return a jacket. Unfortunately, the customer’s jacket had
been torn up by her dog. Your refund policy does not cover this type of damage. You
must tell the customer that you can’t refund her money, while still maintaining her
business.
Any of you who have worked in retail, can probably relate
4
You promised your boss that you would finish
your report by 5 p.m. today. Unfortunately,
you are still waiting for information from
your co‐worker, Pam. Pam and your boss are
good friends. You must let the boss know
that if you don’t get the information from
Pam soon, the report will be late.
Example 2
You promised your boss that you would finish your report by 5 p.m. today.
Unfortunately, you are still waiting for information from your co‐worker, Pam. Pam
and your boss are good friends. You must let the boss know that if you don’t get the
information from Pam soon, the report will be late.
Not a lot of people want to tell their boss they can’t meet a deadline and 2, that the
reason is because of one of their friends. This would be a difficult situation to be in
and message to deliver.
5
You are a manager of a restaurant. Your best
waiter is named Chad. Lots of customers
come in to the restaurant because they love
his service. Unfortunately, Chad has been
rude to the other wait staff and they have
complained to you. Today, you witnessed
Chad yelling at a hostess for a very minor
reason. You need to get Chad to improve his
behaviour, while also maintaining a positive
relationship with him so he doesn’t quit.
Example 3
You are a manager of a restaurant. Your best waiter is named Chad. Lots of customers
come in to the restaurant because they love his service. Unfortunately, Chad has been
rude to the other wait staff and they have complained to you. Today, you witnessed
Chad yelling at a hostess for a very minor reason. You need to get Chad to improve his
behaviour, while also maintaining a positive relationship with him so he doesn’t quit.
I know many of you have shared you work in restaurants and can likely relate.
You basically have to discipline him and be friendly.
These are all examples of when you have to deliver bad news in the workplace.
6
When given bad news…
Readers may:
• Stop reading
• Experience anger and shock
• Take the message personally
• Cut ties with the organization
When given bad news…
QUESTION: What happens when you’re given bad news through writing?
Readers may:
Stop reading (if it’s an email or shut down/stop listening)
Experience anger and shock
Take the message personally
Cut ties with the organization (as customer, say forget it and move on to the
competition).
7
“Often audiences seem to
have a premonition that
bad news is coming and just
as often move to a worst‐
case scenario.”
“Similarly, bad news is difficult
to contain; rumour often
precedes fact.”
Kevin Gass, VP, Marketing and Communications, B.C. Lotteries Corporation
Quote
“Often audiences seem to have a premonition that bad news is coming and just as
often move to a worst‐case scenario… Similarly, bad news is difficult to contain;
rumour often precedes fact.” Kevin Gass, VP, Marketing and Communications, B.C.
Lotteries Corporation
This is why we need to be careful and cautious when we communicate information
that may come across negatively . Rumors and bad news travel quickly usually faster
than good news. Think of all the examples in social media or in your daily life. With
co‐op students, if one student has a negative experience with a firm/employer it will
spread quickly or with a specific course or instructor. I always encourage my students
to be open minded and make the judgement for themselves but that is not always
easy to do in reality.
8
8
Rules of breaking bad news





Be timely
Involve a team
Be honest
Be consistent
Be clear
 Take responsibility
 Don’t hide
 Explain the “why”
 Discuss what’s next
 Encourage questions
Adapted from “Breaking Bad News” IABC Communication World by Dennis Ackley
Rules of breaking bad news
Be timely – don’t delay! If you take too long to deliver the bad news then it’s possible
that someone else may share it (rumours) and it can make the situation much worse.
Alternatively, it may be important to delay a message. For example, if someone’s
parent just passed away, it likely wouldn’t be the ideal time to tell someone they lost
their job.
Involve a team: Don’t just rely on yourself; try to get at least one other person’s
perspective to ensure that what you are intending to communicate comes across
clearly and in the tone you wish to have conveyed.
Be honest: As difficult as it may be, being honest is critical. If you do not provide the
truth then it’s very likely that someone will discover it later and it will cause you may
other problems in the future.
Be consistent: Ensure you use consistent messaging internally and externally. For
example, don’t tell your staff one version of the story and then customers a different
version. It’s likely that someone from your staff team knows a customer and they will
9
compare notes!
Be clear: Ensure your audience will understand the messaging – focus on the
language that you use and how it’s structured. Consider the direct versus indirect
approach, which is covered in the next section of this module.
Take responsibility: It’s really important to assume responsibility when you’re
communicating bad news; try not to point to someone else as being the problem.
This conveys integrity and may garner more respect for you.
Don’t hide: Much like our first point, it’s important that if an issue arises that you get
on top of it and that you are as proactive as possible. If you try to hide away and
pretend like nothing happened then this is going to cause more problem in the long‐
term.
Explain the “why”: People need rationale for decisions that are made and
communicated. Ensure you have your reasoning prepared and that you clearly
communicate this. For example, if someone applied to a university and didn’t get
accepted, it wouldn’t be very good to just send a letter stating: Sorry, you are not
accepted. Instead, it should at least indicate that the student didn’t meet the
minimum GPA requirements (for example).
Discuss what’s next: Try your best to discuss next steps. If someone is going to be laid
off from their job then help them understand the what they can expect will happen
next (e.g. you need to return your keys, our HR department will connect with you to
discuss your transition package, etc.).
Encourage questions: When receiving bad news most people will have questions; it
may not be immediately. Either way, ask the individual(s) if there is anything they’d
like to have clarified. Remember, often when we deliver bad news people do not hear
everything we are saying; it’s possible they have missed a key detail and may require
that it be repeated.
9
What is a bad
news message?
10
Using the
direct vs. indirect
approach to writing
So we’ve discussed the general things we want to include in what we communicate to
others, however we also need to figure out exactly HOW to share the information.
11
Direct vs Indirect approach
Direct vs. Indirect approach
This is where we can determine if we use what we call the direct approach or the
indirect approach to sharing bad news.
12
When to be
direct
• Audience prefers directness
• Critical information must be
presented clearly
• News is expected and is not serious
Rule of thumb: Use when bad
news is minor/will cause your
audience little disappointment, OR
use if information is urgent and
critical.
When to be direct
Reader prefers directness
Critical information must be presented clearly
News is expected and is not serious
Rule of thumb: Use when bad news is minor/will cause your audience little
disappointment OR if the information is urgent and critical.
13
The Direct approach
Direct approach template
This mode showcases how we deliver information using the direct approach. We
present the bad news immediately, followed by our rationale and any potential
alternatives, and then end with a positive close.
Sandwich
14
An example:
The Outlook 2016 Level 2 course, originally scheduled
for March 24, has been cancelled due to low
registration.
In its place please consider one of our complimentary
self‐directed learning courses online.
Please let me know if you’re interested in self‐directed
learning so that I can provide an orientation.
An example
The Outlook 2016 Level 2 course, originally scheduled for March 24, has been
cancelled due to low registration.
In its place, please consider one of our complimentary self‐directed learning courses
online.
Please let me know if you’re interested in self‐directed learning so that I can provide
an orientation.
15
The Outlook 2016 Level 2 course, originally scheduled
for March 24, has been cancelled due to low
registration.
In its place please consider one of our complimentary
self‐directed learning courses online.
Please let me know if you’re interested in self‐directed
learning so that I can provide an orientation.
16
https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau‐covid‐19‐1.5496367 (accessed March 13, 2020)
https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau‐covid‐19‐1.5496367
*note this is clearly not a recent news update but I wanted to include it as an
example
17
When to be
indirect
• Diplomacy is important
• Unfamiliar audience
• Unexpected news/information
• Anticipated strong negative reaction
Rule of thumb: Use when
preparation is needed to help your
audience accept the bad news.
When to be indirect
Diplomacy is important
Unfamiliar audience
Unexpected news/information
Anticipated strong negative reaction
Rule of thumb: Use when preparation is needed to help your audience accept the bad
news.
18
The Indirect approach
Indirect approach slide
Contrary to the direct approach, with the indirect approach we begin with a buffer
that serves as a way to build some rapport with our audience. We then provide
rationale and THEN present the bad news. We then conclude with a positive closing.
19
Examples of
buffers
• Expression of appreciation
• Good or neutral news
• General principle or fact
• Recap of past communication
• Statement of agreement or
common ground
• Apology or statement of
understanding
• Compliment
Examples of buffers
Expression of appreciation
Good or neutral news
General principle or fact
Recap of past communication
Statement of agreement or common ground
Apology or statement of understanding
Compliment
20
Indirect example
Thank you so much for enrolling in the Outlook 2016 Level 2
course – your interest is a great testament to your desire to
expand your skills.
Unfortunately, due to low registration, we have had to cancel
the course. We recognize this is not ideal, though we have
developed a self‐directed alternative that you will hopefully
find to be of value.
We will be planning to schedule another offering of this
Outlook 2016 Level 2 course in the Spring and will be sure to
notify you immediately once registration opens.
Thank you again for your interest and commitment towards
enhancing your skills.
Indirect example
Thank you so much for enrolling in the Outlook 2016 Level 2 course – your interest is
a great testament to your desire to expand your skills.
Unfortunately, due to low registration, we have had to cancel the course. We
recognize this is not ideal, though we have developed a self‐directed alternative that
you will hopefully find to be of value.
We will be planning to schedule another offering of this Outlook 2016 Level 2 course
in the Spring and will be sure to notify you immediately once registration opens.
Thank you again for your interest and commitment towards enhancing your skills.
21
Thank you so much for enrolling in the Outlook 2016 Level 2 course –
your interest is a great testament to your desire to expand your skills.
Unfortunately, due to low registration, we have had to cancel the
course. We recognize this is not ideal, though we have developed a
self‐directed alternative that you will hopefully find to be of value.
We will be planning to schedule another offering of this Outlook 2016
Level 2 course in the Spring and will be sure to notify you immediately
once registration opens.
Thank you again for your interest and commitment towards enhancing
your skills.
22
Using the
direct vs. indirect
approach to writing
23
What do we mean
by persuasion?
Now often when we’re providing negative news to someone we also want to try and
persuade them that things won’t be so bad…
Or if we’re dealing with a situation that isn’t negative at all, then we need to also be
mindful of how we may convince someone that what we’re describing or proposing is
a good idea!
24
What do we mean by
persuasion?
The attempt to influence an
audience’s attitudes, beliefs, or
actions.
What do we mean by persuasion?
QUESTION: What does it mean if we want to persuade someone?
The attempt to influence an audience’s attitudes, beliefs, or actions.
Get people to feel, think, act the way we want them to
Encourage your audience to fulfill your request
25
Logos:
the idea makes sense /
logical
Persuasion
Ethos:
the idea is credible /
comes from authority
Pathos:
the idea has an
emotional connection
Logos, Ethos, Pathos
When we write a persuasive message there are three core elements we need to
consider:
Logos: the idea that we’re sharing makes sense or is logical to the person or group of
people we’re communicating with.
Ethos: The idea that we’re communicating is credible and appears to come from a
place of authority.
Pathos: The idea that we’re communicating has an emotional connection to the
person that we’re communicating with.
26
Appealing to
logic (Logos)
• Evidence
• Facts
• Figures
• Benefits
• Reasons
• Criteria
• Standards
Appealing to logic (logos)
If we want people to appeal to logic or a logical outcome or expression then that’s
where we need to embed things like evidence – which is often what we do with our
writing when we embed research and citations.
We should also reply upon using facts to help support our argument. We can also use
supports like embedding figures or tables that display data.
It is also valuable to highlight benefits and reasons (or rationale) for our idea or
decision; that will make it a lot more compelling.
We may also rely upon certain criteria that is transparent, such as when I’m marking
assignments; I’ve provided you with the grading rubrics in advance so you can see the
criteria I will be using to assess your work.
27
28
Appealing to
ethics/credibility
(Ethos)
• Specialized knowledge (expertise)
• Reputation
• Authority (job title)
• Familiarity (relationships /
commonality).
Appealing to ethics/credibility (Ethos)
Ethos refers to credibility or ethics. We want to infuse expertise and maintain a good
reputation for ourselves. If possible try to leverage authority; they may come across
as being more reputable. We may also want to appeal to our relationships with
people, or our familiarity or commonality with them.
Building trust with your audience.
29
Think of ETHOS as a means of convincing an audience by offering reliability, honesty,
and credibility. This usually means a respected authority figure or celebrity giving a
product or brand a testimonial or endorsement
Lebron James and Nike
He’s one of the most respected, credible, and talented basketball players of all time.
Nike’s logo does appear, but its flash is brief and tasteful.
This ethos appeal leaves no doubt that Nike and LeBron are in it to win it, together.
Even though it’s subtle.
And doesn’t this ethos commercial make you want to try on a new pair of Nikes as
soon as possible? Don’t you want to be like LeBron? If you have to buy basketball
shoes, might as well buy the best, right?
30
Appealing to emotion (Pathos)
• Security
• Excitement
• Achievement
• Adventure
• Belonging
• Understanding
• Helpfulness
• Pride
• Manipulation
• Distortion
• Guilt
• Hostility
• Dishonesty
• Shaming
• Blaming
Slide: Appealing to emotion (Pathos)
Finally we want to appeal to emotion. We want to encourage people to think that
we’re telling them will lead to greater security, excitement, achievement, adventure
or belonging to a group. They may even gain a better understanding or that whatever
you’re recommending will be very helpful or increase their pride.
What we want to avoid, though, is manipulation, distortion of facts, making people
feel guilty, and being hostile. We also want to avoid being dishonest, shaming people,
or blaming them as well.
31
Example of pathos – invoking happiness – bright field, sunshine, refreshing‐ appealing
to your emotions, triggering specific feelings of joy and happiness
So, what we’ve just heard is essentially that we require all three aspects of Logos,
Ethos, and Pathos to truly persuade someone to do or believe in something that
we’re asking for.
32
When do we persuade?
Sales
Job
applications
Favours
Exceptions
Donations
Other?
Slide: When do we persuade?
We persuade all the time. Some examples are when we try to sell something to
someone, or when we apply for a job, if we ask for favours, if we ask for exceptions
(like assignment deadline extensions), asking for donations – and many other
opportunities.
33
A key requirement
Credibility
• Facts
• Objectivity
• Sources
• Sincerity
• Expertise • Good intention
• Enthusiasm
A key requirement: credibility
A key requirement if we’re going to persuade anyone is that we need to be credible.
That’s where logos, ethos, and pathos come in; but in general we want to use facts,
good courses of information, reinforcing our own expertise or finding someone who
has expertise in a given area. We also want to ensure we come across as being
sincere – we’re not trying to trick people or convince them to do something that isn’t
in their best interest.
34
Key questions when preparing
What do you
want the
audience to do?
What motivates
the audience?
What is the best
way to get the
message across?
What objections
may arise?
Tool/medium/
channel
Design and layout
Framed in a
positive tone
Key questions when preparing
Key questions to be asking ourselves when preparing a persuasive message or
argument is what do you want your audience to do? What’s your purpose? What type
of response are you looking for?
You may also ask what motivates your audience? Why is this important information
for them and how will it benefit or impact them in some way?
What’s the best way to get the message across? Let’s go back to the basic
communication process model; the tool or the channel is so important. What is the
best way to be delivering this information? Should you be designing it a certain way,
laying it out a certain way, and what kind of tone will you use? Try your best to frame
it in a positive tone where possible by highlighting benefits. Perhaps acknowledge
there will be challenges, but highlight the positive aspects.
Think about what objectives might arise; what might your audience disagree with?
And how might you prepare yourself to address those issues? If someone says “I
don’t have money to spend on this” – that may be one of their objectives. Try then to
35
figure out why it would be important for them to redirect another portion of their
budget to fund the request that you have.
35
What music and Aristotle can teach us
about persuasion
http://ed.ted.com/lessons/what‐aristotle‐and‐joshua‐bell‐can‐teach‐us‐about‐persuasion‐conor‐neill#review
Video – Aristotle and music
Have a look at this video to learn a little more about persuasion – I’ve included it as a
separate link on our Moodle site, directly beneath this video:

36
What do we mean
by persuasion?
37
The AIDA approach
to persuasive
messages
AIDA
Let’s explore the AIDA approach that we might take to actually communicate with
people in a persuasive way. This is a variation on the in‐direct approach.
Let’s look now at what AIDA stands for:
A – Attention: Encourage audience to want to hear your message. Grab their
attention. (summarize a problem) – often you can use a story or even infuse humour.
I – Interest: Provide additional details that prompt audience to imagine how a
solution will benefit them. Keep their interest. Use facts, figures. Make sure you find
credible sources/expert opinion. And stress reader benefits as much as possible.
D – Desire: Get audiences to embrace your idea, be clear how it will benefit them and
answer potential objections (minimize resistance). Prepare and present any counter‐
arguments in a non‐combative manner.
A – Action: Suggest specific actions that you want audience to take. Provide a
38
deadline, if needed.
38
Attention Summarize a problem.
AIDA –
variation on
indirect
approach
Interest Imagine how a solution will benefit them.
Desire
Highlight clear benefits.
Action
Suggest specific action.
A – Attention: Encourage audience to want to hear your message. Grab their
attention. (summarize a problem) – often you can use a story or even infuse humour.
I – Interest: Additional details that prompt audience to imagine how a solution will
benefit them. Keep their interest. Use facts, figures. Make sure you find credible
sources/expert opinion. And stress reader benefits.
D – Desire: Get audiences to embrace your idea, be clear how it will benefit them and
answer potential objections (minimize resistance).Prepare and present counter‐
arguments in a non‐combative manner.
A – Action: Suggest specific action you want audience to take. Provide deadline, if
needed.
39
AIDA example
• [Attention] As mentioned recently, I am doing a report for my communication
class at KPU which is based on some of the recruitment issues we have been
experiencing at ABC Company
• [Interest] Through my research I’ve found many solutions that could be
implemented to help address this issue, and to ideally make ABC Company even
more profitable.
• [Desire] In particular, my research provides recommendations that can reverse
the negative impact our recruitment issues have had on our current employees
who are overworked and also our clients who are not getting good quality
service.
• [Action] I would really appreciate if I could have 30 minutes of your time before
October 30 to share my findings and recommendations with you. Please just let
me know via email when you may be available.
Inspired by https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/AIDA.htm
Slide: AIDA example
Let’s look at a short example. Let’s assume that you need to write a research report
that will help your employer solve their current employee recruitment problems:
[Attention] As mentioned recently, I am doing a report for my communication class at
KPU which is based on some of the recruitment issues we have been experiencing at
ABC Company. [you are indicating that this is a relevant and current issue, therefore
grabbing their attention]
[Interest] Through my research I’ve found many solutions that could be implemented
to help address this issue, and to ideally make ABC Company even more profitable.
[you are indicating that you’ve done research and there are some proven solutions
that could positively impact the company. This will likely capture their interest]
[Desire] In particular, my research provides recommendations that can reverse the
negative impact our recruitment issues have had on our current employees who are
overworked and also our clients who are not getting good quality service. [You are
reinforcing the benefits and stating that this issue affects both several audiences:
40
employees and current customers]
[Action] I would really appreciate if I could have 30 minutes of your time before
October 30 to share my findings and recommendations with you. Please just let me
know via email when you may be available. [You are being very specific by indicating
what the next step is to move forward]
40
The AIDA approach
to persuasive
messages
41
Elements to
enhance our
persuasive
argument
42
Enhancing our
persuasion
• Opposing viewpoints
• Appropriate evidence
• Visuals
Enhancing our persuasion
To develop a truly compelling persuasive argument, there are a few other tools we
can use to reinforce our claim and the strength of the logic behind what we’re trying
to communicate:
Opposing viewpoints
Appropriate evidence
Visuals
Surprise, surprise ‐ we’re going to use our Tim Horton’s example to help illustrate
these components.
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Opinions or positions that are not
aligned with what we are trying to
accomplish.
Opposing
viewpoints
Two approaches:
 Counter an opposing argument
 Show that your argument is stronger
than the other
Opposing viewpoints
In general, when we’re presenting arguments or recommendations there are going to
be differing opinions based on a number of variables – these could be people’s
different interests, the impact the argument or recommendation will have on them
personally, or their own personal view or values as well.
Regardless, it is important for us as communicators to understand what concerns or
opposing views our audience may have and that we address those directly so people
recognize that we’ve considered those concerns.
There are generally two ways we can approach this by leveraging strong fact‐based
research:
Counter an opposing argument (especially if illogical)
Showcase that your argument is stronger than the other
QUESTION: What could some opposing viewpoints be to KPU opening up a second
Tim Hortons location on campus?
> Not the best use of space or funds
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> The demand isn’t really that great
> Why Tim Hortons? Why not something different and healthier?
QUESTION: Now what could some of our own counter‐arguments be to those
concerns?
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Enhancing our
persuasion
• Opposing viewpoints
• Appropriate evidence
• Visuals
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Information supporting your claim
Evidence
Three types:
 Numerical data
 Examples
 Expert testimony
Appropriate evidence
There are three main types of evidence that most audiences will react favourably
towards, and which can strengthen your argument.
Numerical data: general statistics – the larger the sample size, the more persuasive!
Examples: These make points more concrete and also more vivid and memorable –
like how I’m showcasing examples to help illustrate these concepts that we’re
learning.
Expert testimony: When you quote someone who is considered to be an expert, your
argument becomes much more convincing. This could be in the form of a direct
quote, or a list of testimonials.
QUESTION: For our Tim Hortons arguments, what would examples of numerical,
examples, and expert testimony be?
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Enhancing our
persuasion
• Opposing viewpoints
• Appropriate evidence
• Visuals
Visuals
Images or graphics help to support technical information and points you’re trying to
convey in a more impactful manner.
These can be incorporated within your communication piece to quickly convey
impact or trends. Line graphs, bar graphs, spatial overviews, and infographics can be
valuable here, as can photos.
Think about examples we can incorporate into this video’s example. One might be a
photo of a long line‐up, or a second could a table or graph indicating how long
average wait times have been over a certain period of time.
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Elements to
enhance our
persuasive
argument
48
CMNS 1140 –
Intro to Professional
Communication
MODULE 7
1
How to make
messages easy to
read
In our past modules we discussed the differences between emails and memos,
proposals. Regardless of the type of tool we use to communicate our message, there
are a few core aspects that we need to consider to ensure that it’s easy for our
audience to understand our message and find the most important content.
2
How can I best compose this
message to help my audience:
Understand and accept the
message
Message
readability /
Document
design
Locate the critical details
See the relationship between
ideas
See and hear the tone
Message readability / Document design
When we’re creating any type of message – whether it be a memo, email, request,
response, or goodwill ‐ it’s really important to think about how you’re going to
design or layout your communication piece.
In order to do so effectively, we need to ask ourselves: How can I best compose this
message to help my audience:
Understand and accept the message
Locate the critical details
See the relationship between ideas
See and hear the tone
3
Core elements:
Overview
Format
Layout
White space
Headings
Lists & Parallelism
Typefaces (fonts) and
Typestyles (bold/italics)
Core elements to consider: Overview
These are the core elements we should consider:
Format
Layout
White space
Headings
Lists & Parallelism
Typefaces (fonts) and Typestyles (bold/italics)
We’ll now expand on each of these.
4
Format
Think:
• Situation
• Message
• Audience
• Response
• Tool
Format
This essent…

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